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Full text of "Verhandelingen van het Bataviaasch Genootschap der Kunsten en Wetenschappen"

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OF 



COMPARATIYE ZOÖLOGY, 



AT.HARYARD COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, MASS. 



JTountreti ö» prfbate suï)scrfptfon, fn 1861. 



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TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



JB^TJLVI^M SOCIETY 



OF 



ARTS AND SCIENCES 



VOL. \J^ 




BATAVIA; 

PRINT E D BY A. H. II U B B A R I>, 
AT THE GOVERNMENT PRESS. 

-^^^ 1811. 



VERHANDELINGEN 



VAN HET 



BATAVIAASCH 

GENOOTSCHAP, 

DER 

KUNSTEN EN WETENSCHAPPEN. 



V ïl. DEEL. 




TE BATAVIA, 

GEDRUKT IN 's GOÜVERNEMENTS-DRÜKKERY 

BY A, lï. HUBBARD, 
iS14. 



4 ini 



Cl • 



CONTENTS 

OF THE SE VENT H VOLUME. 
1: REFACB. 

New Regulafions for the Society. 

List of the Members. 

Discourse delivered at a Meetino: of the 
Society on the 23d April ISI3, bv the 
Honorable T S. Raffles, President. 

Coriespondence of the Society with the 
'Riiiht Honorable the Earl op 

MiNTO. 

r. Prize Answer to the Prize Question of 

the Society on ''the raost proper food 
for young Children, who are not 
suckled by their Mothers or Nurses," 
by Cornelis Terne^ M. D of Leydea. 

Sï. Report on the manners and custorns of 

the inhabitants of the Mountaia 
Brama, with a history of their origin^ 
according to an account frora a letter 
from Mr Adriaan van Rvck. 

III, Chemical Analysis of a Vf^^canic Sand 

audiroa-ore, by T. Horsfield, M. D. 



£1 CONTENTS 

IV. Letter on Üie Solo Ri ver, by the same. 
Leder desc ribing a tour to the East- 

era Districts of Java, by the same. 

V. Description of the Crinmn Asiaticum, 

by T Horsfield, M. D. 

VL Descriptioa of the Gatip'tr$c, by the 

same. 

VIL Chemical Analysis of the fruit of the 
Mar ak' tree, bv ihe same. 

VIIL On the 0'*paSy or Poison tree of Java, 
by the same. 

IX. N^rrafive of a Journey to esamine the 

remain-^ of an Ancient City and Tem«» 
pies at Brambana in Java^ by Lieu- 
tenant Colonel Mackenzie. 

X» Sketch of BorneOj by the late Dr, Leyden. 



Xi 



ÏNHOUa 

Dit vilde Deel behelst behalve 

Het Voorbcrigt. 

New Regulations for the Society. 

Naamlvst der Leden. 

Discourse delivered at a Meeting of }hé 
Society on the 23ó April 181.^, by 
the Honorable X S. Raffles, Pre- 
sident* 

Corfespondence of ihe Society with 
the Right Honorable the Earl of 

MiNTO. 

de volgende stuif ken. 

I. Bekroond Antwoord op de Prysvraag 

van het Genootschap, ter aanw^yzing 
"van het beste voedsel voor Jonge kin- 
deren^ die niet van de Moeders of 
gewone Minnen gezoogd worden, 
door CoRNELïs Terne^ Med. Dr. te 
Leyden. 

II, Berïgt wegens de zeden en gewoonten 

der opgezetenen van den Berg Brama, 
en een Verhaal hunner afkomst, 
volgens eenige opgaaf, uit een brief 
Tan den Heer Adriaan tan RrcK. 



11 INHOUD. 

lïL Sclieikundigs Ontledin-^ \an een Vol- 
kaansch Z md en Yzer-erfs, door 
Thom\s HofisFfELD, Med. Dr. 

IV. Over de Rivi-M' van Solo, een brief van 

den zelfden Schrjver. 

Heïs naarde Oaster-itreken vac Java, 

ifl gelykeo brief. 

V. Beknopte Beschrjving van het Crinum 

A^iaticum, door Thomas Horsfield 
Med. Dr. 

VL Eescbrjving van den Gatip-hoom, door 

den zelfden. 

VIL Scheikundige Ontleding der Vruchten 
van den Rarak-boom, door den zelfden. 

VIIÏ. On the Oopas, or Foison-Tree of Java, 
bj Th. Horsfield, Med. Dr. 

IX. Narrative of a Journej to Examine the 

Remains of an Ancieiit Cilj and 
Temples at Brambana in Java by 
Leiut. Col. C. Ma€Ken21e. 

X. Sketch of Borneo, bj the late Dr. Leydek, 



YOORBERIGT. 

jlJlet Is reeds zoo lang geleden, dat het Vide 
Deel der Verhandelingen dezes Genootschape in 
het licht verscheen, dat welligt geen Vilde 
Deel immer meer verwacht werd. — De redenen, 
van zoo lange vertraging zijn eenvoudig en na- 
tuurlijk: de Prijsvragen, die van tijd tot tijd 
waren opgegeven en bij herhaling voorgesteld, 
bleven doorgaans onbeantwoord ; andere stuk-» 
ken werden ook niet ingeleverd, en de lust tot 
werkz-aamheid verging onder bijkomende bij- 
zondere noodlottig leden, die het Genootschap 
diep ten onder hielden. 

Dirigerende Leden gaven echter den moed 
niet geheel op, en werden te rade in den jare 
1800 bij de toenmalige Hooge Regering, als Op-» 
perdirecteuren eene poging te doen^ om door 
eene eenvoudiger inrigting, minder ostentatie en 
bepaalder inzigten, aan het Genootschap een 
gemakkelijker bestaan, doelmatiger werkzaam- 
heid en een gelukkiger ophouden zijner achting 
%e verzekeren. Het liep aan tot Augustus 1802^ 

A 



il iröoftEfiniGT. 

dat het ontwerp dezer verandering der Hongê 
Regering op Derzelver begeerte voorgedragerljs 
na volle goedkeuring bekonnen ie hebben^ door 
Dirigerende Leden, daar toe gemagtigd> in uit«* 
voering gesteld en tot stand gebragt werd Da 
nieüWe Inrigting, voorafgegaan Van een kort 
verslag der zaak en gevolgd van eene Naamlijst 
der toenmalige Leden van bet Genootschap^ naaf 
de nieuwe ordening opgemaakt, werd te diöf 
tijd afzonderlijk in druk gegeven ; en het isj 
vooral nu, niét noodig, daar over te dezer plaats 
verder uit te wijden. 

Het uitzigt toen ter tijd op eenen eindelijkeri 
en duurzamen vrede na zoo vele oorlogen en on^ 
rusten, welke haren nadeeligen invloe.d op onaf 
Genootschap vooral niet minder dan eenige an- 
deren geoefend hadden, vereenigde zich genoe- 
gelijk met den herlevenden moed en verwach- 
tingen van Dirigerende Leden* Zelven door- 
gaans, gelijk meest alle andere Leden alhier, 
aan een vast plaatselijk verblijf en drukke 
ambtsbezigheden gebonden, waren zij weinig in 
de gelegenheid^ in den bepaalderen fcritig van 
beoefening, waartoe het Genootschap zijne be- 
moeijenissen beperkt had, door eigene nasporing 
en arbeid iets van aanhelang toe te brengen^ 
dan ook des te genegener betoonden zij zich om 



• • • 

VOORBERIGT. 1^^ 

onder hunnen invloed en toezigt bekwame han- 
den te werk te stellen, die meer opzettelijk en 
geheel konden toegewijd zijn aan de taak^ welke 
bijzonder viel in de bedoelingen vj\ahet Genoot- 
^ghap. 

De Heer Thomas Horsfield Med. Doet. uit 
Noord- Amerika herwaart gekomen en gunstig 
bekend wegens zijne kundigheden en ijver^, was 
tot Lid gekoren, en ontdekte spoedig zulke da- 
delijke blijken van vlijt en bekwaamheid in Bo- 
tanische onberzoekingen en proefnenaingenj te 
gelijk met den voikomensten kist^ om, onder de 
noodige aanmoediging en ondersteuning, teti 
dienste van het Genootschap, bijzonderst in de 
ontdekking van de medieinale planten van 
dit Eiland en de aanwijzing van dezelver krach- 
ten en gebruik opzettelijk werkzaam te zijn^ 
dat Dirigerende Leden, overtuigd van de wel^ 
willenheid der Hooge Regering ter alle mogelijke 
bevordering van ^s Genootschaps belangen en 
bedoelingen, de vrijmoedigheid gebruikten,, om 
aan Hoogstdezelveden Botanicus Horsfield met 
gepaste aandringen zeer aan te bevelen, ten 
einde met een voegzaara middel van bestaan en 
verdere tot zijnen arbeid benoodigde beschik- 
kingen en aanmoedigingen voorzien en began^ 
stigd te worden. 



If VOORBERTGT. 

Op deze voordragt, waar bij liet Plan vetrt 
werkzaamheid van den Heer Horsfield gevoegd 
was, behaagde het Hooggeraelde Regering aan 
dezen Natuur-onderzoeker gedurende den tijd, 
dat hij naar het voorsz Plan ten dienste van het 
Bataviaasch Genootschap en deze Kolonie zou 
de werkzaam zijn^ een vast traktement toe te 
leggen, een geschikt lokaal voor zijn verblijf en 
werkzaamheden aan te wijzen, en nog andere 
aanmoedigingen te bepalen. 

In het volgende jaar 1804 bewerkten Dirige- 
rende Leden, overeenkomstig d&n voorslag en 
verzoek van Dr» Horsfield, bij hen goedge- 
keurd, dat de Hooge Regering met gelijke be- 
reidvaardigheid hem toestond eerst Tjeribon, en 
vervolgens de geheele Noordoost-kust van Java 
te bereizen tot het doen zijner nasporingen en 
verzamelingen, als mede de orders stelde tot ge- 
makkelij kmaking dier reis, eenen Teekenaar uit 
het Samarangsch Marineschool hem toevoegde 
en het geheel ontwerp nog verder begunstigde. 

.Billijk staarde men bij het Genootschap 
vooruit naar de vrucht dezer pogingen, en voed* 
de voornamelijk het gerekt verlangen naar een 
aantal nieuw ontdekte, kunstmatig beproefde en 
wel beschreven plantgewassen voor genees- en 
heelkundig gebruik in het eigen land, welke de- 



VÖORBÉRÏGT. V 

2è!ve zoó rijkelijk voortbrengt ; dan het veld van 
onderzoek was zoo ruim en zoo nitlokkend voot 
den ondervermoeiden Natuur-onderzoeker, dat 
hij weldra zijne nasporingen buiten het oor- 
spronkelijke Plan uitbreidde, eri toteene geheelè 
Plora javana uitstrekte, te gelijk niet verzui* 
hiende zulke ïindere onderzoekingen en waarné^ 
mingen betrekkelijk tot de Natuurlijke historie 
van dit Eiland^, als de gunstige gelegenheid^ 
waar in hij zich gesteld zag, zijnen weetlust eft 
zijner nasporende vlijt doorgaans aanbood. 

Van tijd tot tijd zond Dr. Horsfield aan Diri- 
gerende Leden in, berigten van de taak en plaats 
en voortgang zijner verrigtingen, allen geschikt 
ona hunne hope te vleijen met het vooruitzigt óp 
èetien rijken voorraad van stof voor volgende 
verhandelingen van het Genootschap, en dit 
vooruitzigt scheen te vergoeden de nog onvoK 
dane verlangens ten aanzien van de medicinale 
plantgewassen. 

Intusschen had het Genootschap reeds vóór 
de gemelde reis van den Doctor en onder het 
voortzetten derzelve eenige losse Stukjes en Be- 
schrijvingen van zijne pen ontvangen, nu ge- 
deeltelijk in dit Deel voorkomende, die toen ter 
tijd allen met vrucht hadden kunnen uitgegeven 
worden, ware er niet eca onoverkomelijke hin- 



4erpaa{ geweest, die alles in den we^ stand, h'et 
gebrek namelijk atin de benoodigde Druklette» 
req< I?oor den vorigen ooilog was de onderlinge 
verstandhouding met het Vaderla,nd merkelijk 
gestremd geweest: de vrede, die da^,röp volg^f 
4ejj die Dirig^rendalieden 300 veel moed en hop© 
gaf.was helaas van korten duur ; bijde uitbarsting 
Y^q een nieuw eq nog dreigender oorlogsvuur 
werd de teleurstelling haast verseld van veel 
ontmoediging ; er was aan geene nieuwe druk-^ 
letters te komen ; gedane eischen bleven onvpU 
daan» voldane door onderschepping verijdeld. 

Qeen wonder dat in zqlke duisterheid der tfj« 
den^, in zoo benarden en afgesnedeq toestandj, 
waar in deze kolonie ^ich bevond, en onder het 
weg sterven vgin vele nutt^ Leden^ die niet te 
herplaatsen waren, de lust der overblijvende 
kwijnde of vei-gong, en de I^etteroefeningea 
rneestal stilstonden, 

Ondertusschen bleef Dr. Horsfield onder her- 
haalde maatregelen van het HoUandsch Gou.- 
vernemen t ten behoeve van het Genootschap 
zijne veel belovende taak voortzetten, tot dat 
eindelijk in September 1811^ deze kolonie aan 
het Britsche gezag onderworpen werd. 

Van deze omstandigheid teekent zich een 
mcuw tijdperk voor het Bataviasche Genoot- 



VoóilÊEttiGt. vil 

fchap. Gemakkelijk overtuigd vAx\ de Jianlei» 
-dende oorzaken van deszelfs verval eii echtéf 
overreed van het groöte voordeel, dat door de 
herstelling van dit Genootschap in vorige kracht 
van Werking voof de >VetenSchappen eii het gé* 
meene nut konde ten Wege ,gebragt \Vord6i1> 
trok zich het nieüw gevestigd Gouvernement dö 
5Kaak en belangen van het kwijnerd Genootschap 
met nadruk, en in de opwekkendste -sVijs autt» 

D3 Heer Luitenant Gouverneur TöóMAS 
Stamford Raffles, zelf een ijverig vóorstan* 
der en gelukkig beoefenaar der wetenschappen^ 
trad in dé openlijke betrekking vap Protector van 
het Bataviaasch Genootschap, op g^edaan aari- 
ïock tan Dirigerende Leden, die tot deze vrij^ 
moedigheid merkelijk waren aangevuurd door 
Deszelfs edelmoedige vaststelling van een goed 
bestaan voor den vaak gen: Dr. Horsfield, vt'aar 
'in zij een gegeven blijk van goedkeuring over 
hunne eigene pogingen te zijnen opzigt meerden 
te ontwaren. 

Dadelijk ondervond het Genootschap den belang- 
rijken invloed dezer nieuwe betrekking. Zijn 
Ed. stond aan het zelve gunstig toe het vrij en 
kosteloos gebruik van 's Gouvemements Druk- 
kers, vereerde aan het zelve uit de Bibliotheek 
van het Gouvernement alle die boeken, welkó 



voor het gebruik van het Genootschap van 
dienst zijn konden, en, het gene bijzonder instop- 
wekkend en gewiglig was^ bestemde allergua- 
§tigst een aanzienlijk en welgeschikt lokaal op 
den ge zondsten stands voor de vergaderingen, 
Poekerjj en Verzamelingen van het Genootsebap, 
Oïider deze gunstige vooruitzigten bij de 
gedane aanwinst van eenige verdienstelijke nieuwe 
Leden en verdere uitbreiding van derzelve getal, 
werd wederom eene nieuwe organizatie voor het 
Genootschap naar eene luinjer schaal en meer 
gelijkvormig aan de inrigting der Aziatische 
Sociëteit te Kalkutta opgemaakt en in werking 
gebragt, en alsoo de boven gewaagde van höt 
jaar 1803 nu vervangen door de volgende 

;• -NIEUWE . • 

iNRIGTINGEN 

VOOR HET 

BATAVIASCHE GENOOTSCHAP. 

TAN 

KUNSTEN EN WETENS CHAFPEH, 

ONDER DE ZIWSPREUK» 

!fot nut van 7 Algemeen^ 

L- — Het Bataviasche Genootschap ^der 

Kunsten en Wetenschappen opgerigt den 24? 

.^pril 1778, onder de Zinspreu^^ Teuin^utyan^^ 



VOORBERIGT. lït 

Als^emeen, zal ondere de bijzondere bescher- 
miiig van het Britsche Gouvernement blijvea 
"Voortduren. 

2. — Het algemeen nut is de bedoeling: van het 
Genootschap in den bepaalderen kring zfjner 
inzio'len en benif>eijenissen : opheldering en uit- 
breiding: der IVatuurljke historie, van falen, 
oudheden, zeden en gewoonten der Indische 
volken en andere bijzonderheden deze Landen 
betreffende bestemmen eigenaardig door plaat- 
selijke betrekkinjT het bijzonder doel van het 
Genootschap, welk tevens de . bevorderins; van 
den Landbouw en andere aangelegenheden tot 
de welvaart der Volkplanting behoorende niet 
uit het oog zal verliezen. 

3 — Bekende braafheid en eene zucht tot uit- 
breiding der Wetenschappen zal een genoeg- 
zaam vèreischte zijn ooi als Lid te wordeu 
Toorgesteld. 

4. — Niemand zal als Lid van het Genoot- 
schap worden aangenomen, dan die d'iartoe 
zijne genegenheid zal hebbea te kennen gege- 
ven. 

5, — Deze door den President of een der Le- 
den voorgesteld zal in de volgende vergadering 

B 



roet eene meerderheid van twee derden, de^ bij 
aen zijnde Leden aangenomen worden. 

6. — Ds contributie zal zijn jaarlijks tieiï 
Spaaosche matten^ te betalen voor ultimo Janu- 
arij, en het Entreegeld mede tien Spaansche 
raatten, of zoo \ eel meer, als ieder nieow Lid 
naar zijn vermogen en^ genereusiteit zal verkie- 
zen te geven.. 

'2'.— "Die onwillig is en blijft aan de bepalin- 
gen^ bij het vorig artikel gemaakt, te voldoeny 
5ïal van zijn Lidmaatschap ontslagen zijn. 

S.^^iïet Gfenootschap zal over zijn fonds be« 
schikken tot zodanige uitgaven, als hetzelve,/ 
z^oo voor huishoudelijk bestier, als het aankoo- 
pen van boeken, van Pliijsische instrumenten en 
andere zaken tot bevordering van deszelfs oog* 
merk zal noodig oordeelen, waar in steeds de 
meeste zuinigheid zal behartigd worden. 

9.— -Alle Bemionaars van Kunsten en Wet-^n- 
J?chappen, welke de voortbrengselen van hunnen 
geest het Genootschap inzenden, zullen daar 
voor de erkentenis van hetzelve ontvangen. 

10 — Ook zal het Genootschap in dank aan- 
nemen geschenken in boeken, manuschripten, 
rariteiten en alles wat voor het Kabinet van 
Naturalia belangrijk kan wezen. 



TOORBERIGT. 70 

• II. — Het Genootschap is bercidwilTi;^ om iiviet 
auderc Genootschappen en b'jzondere Geloerdca 
correspondentie te houden. 

]2, — Tot bevordering van het lieilzaani oog*- 
merk van het Genootsch:ip en deszelfs werk- 
zaamheden zullen voortaan Algemeone Ver^^a- 
deringen van alle Leden gehouden worden^ 
maandelijks, of zoo dikwerf als zulks nader door 
de Leder» zal worden bepaald. 

13 — Uit het midden van het Genootschap 
zal jaarlijks of tei eerste Vergadering in JanU'- 
arij verkozen worden. 

Een President, 

Een Vice-President, 

Twee Secretarissen, van welken een Tresorier 
^al wezen, en een van beiden ervaren in de En* 
gelsche taal. 

Een Conimittee van exami natie en beoordee- 
ling der inkomende stukken, verhandeJinirea 
memorien enz. welk bestaan '/al uit den Presi- 
dent, Viee-President, de beide Secretarissen ea 
vijf Leden. 

Een Conimittee van vier Leden, welke liet 
opzigt zullen hebben over de Bibliotheek, het 
Kabinet van Nituralia, Phijsische instrumenten 
en andere zeldzaamheden in het Muséum vaa 
het Genootschap berustende. 



XU VOORBERIGT. 

1^. — Alle Memorien, Verbandelin2:en, Ber'g- 
ten rf andere stukken, die men bet Genootschap 
wil doen toekomen, zullen bij eenea der Secreta» 
rissen moeten worden ingezonden. 

15. — Het Genootscbap zal jaarlijks, of zoo 
dikwerf als er eene genoegzame boeveelbeid van 
Êtukken voor handen is, een Deel van zijne wer- 
ken uitgeven onder den titel, Verhandelingen 
van het Bataviasche Genootschap der Kunsten 
en Wetenschappen. 

l^. — De Bibliotheek, het Kabinet van Na- 
turalia, Phijsische instrumenten, Rariteiten en 
verder alles wat zich in het Museum van het 
Genootschap bevindt, blijft onder het opper- 
toezigt van eene Commissie. Elk Lid en ieder 
vreemdeling, van een Lid verzeld, hebben daar 
toe op twee nader te bepalen dagen in de week 
den V rijen toegang. 

Naderde zoo het Bataviaasch Genootschap 
door deze herschepping meer zijnen oorspron- 
kelijken aanlog, het was ook een van derzelver 
eerste en gunstigste gevolgen, dat de Heer Lui- 
tenant Gouverneur zelf tot President van het 
Genootschap verzocht en verkoren, te midden 

van zoo veel gewigtige ambtsbezighe ien,. de 
krus zich liet welgevallen en dezen post aan- 
vaardde. 



TOORBERTGT. XIU 

Onder deze opluisterende en veel belovende 
omstandigheden, was- liet, dat de Le len^ door 
hunnen nieuwen President aangemoedigd, zich nu 
bij een algemeen Adres eerbiedig:; verstoutten 
om het Protectoraat van dit Gcnootschaj) aan 
Zijne Excellentie den Graaf Mmto met vurige 
belangstelling nederig aan te bieden. Ook hier 
in slaagden zij naar wenscli ; Zijn Lordschap 
gaf zijner goedwillige gevoelens voor Java's in- 
gezetenen op nieuw toe, nam de vrijmoedige 
bede in allen deele gunstig op, en aanvaardde 
den titel van Protector van het Bataviasche Ge- 
nootschap, 

Tali auxilio & tanto Defensore mag het Ge- 
nootschap een glansrijker tijdvak te gemoet sta- 
ren ; maar dan ook zullen lust en ijver en werk- 
dadigheid herleven: een naauwiijks overzien- 
baar veld van veelsoortige nasporing en bew r- 
king biedt zich van alle kanten den kundigen 
opmerker en beoefenaar aan of dringt zich lie- 
ver zijner waarnemingen en naarstigheid van 
zelfs op ; hoe veel gronds ligt nog onaangeroerd 
of naauwiijks ontgonnen, of gebrekkig bear- 
beid ! wat blijft er niet over voor allerlei v/en* 
schen en billijke verwachtingen ! te bijzonde- 
ren is niet noodig, daar zoo veel ontbreekt. 



REGULATIOJfS 

^OR THE 

lATAVIAN SOCIETY, 

OF 

ARTS AND SCIENCES, 

■" For the Public benefit." 



-»v^SXS>«"«' 



1 — Jl HE Batavian Society of Arts and Sci- 
ences, establishedonthe2ith April, 1778, wilhtbe 
naotto ''' 'FoT the Public benefit,** shall continue 
und^i- tl>€ s^pecial patronage of Ü\t British Go- 
vernment. 

'2. — The public benefit is tlie genera] aim of 
tlie Society, and tlie piirpose of its labours. 
Th^ extension and improvement of natural his- 
torv, and of the knowledge of tlie lanjruagcs, an- 
ti quities, raanners, and customs of the Natives 
of India, and other particulariTies of the Eastera 
countries, are pointed out by its local situation, 
as the more immediate field of its enquiries, 
which will also embraee the improvement of 
agrijculture, and other matters connectcd \s\(k 
tbe pjTosperitj of the colouy. 



ÏJEW RES-ULATIO-NSr &G, XY 

S..*— Acknowledgod integritv, and an anxmus 
desire to conf ribute towards the difTusian of the 
Arts and Sciences, will be sufficiënt recnncimend- 
ations for individuals proposed as Meaibers of 
the Society. 

4.-^No persons wiU be received as Members 
©f the Society^ iinless they haYepreviously stated 
their wish to become so. 

5 — Persons proposed by the President or bj 
one of the Members, will be electcd at the err- 
siiing Meeting, with a majority of two-^thrrds of 
the Members presente 

6 — The annnal contributron is 20 KiTpee.% 
payable beforc the Sist Jauuary in each yeaTj. 
and each Member on his election is likewrse 
bound to pay a similar sum^ or as n^iuch more as 
he may deem^ proper. 

7. — Refusal to comply with the abo^ve ar- 
ticle, \yill be.considered as a resignation. 

8. — The Funds of the Institution wiTl be 
appropriated to its incidental expences, and tot 
the purchase of Books, Philosophical Instru- 
ments^ and ether useful articles, a due reg-ard 
being had in these expeiices to the most rigid 
ecoijomv. 



XVI NEW REGULATIONS POR TltE 

9. — All lovers of the Arts and Sciences, wlio 
inav present the Society with anj prod iictions of 
their genius, will receive the thanks of the Pre- 
sident and Members in acknowledgement. 

10. — The Societj will gratefully accept all 
presents of books, manuscripts, curiosities, and 
interesting obje(:ts for their collection of Na- 
turaliae 

^ 11. — ^The Society is willing to correspond 
with other Institutions of a similar nature^, and 
with Individuals. 

11^. — In order to forward the useful purpos€S 
of the Societj, general meetings of all the Mem- 
beis will be held monthly, or as often as maj 
ibe deemed necessarj. 

13. — The foUowing Officers will be appoint- 
ed annuallj, at the first meeting in Januarj. 

A President. 

A Vice ditto. 

Two Secretaries, one to act as Treasurer, and 
one of whom must possess a competent know- 
ledge of the Eüglisb language. 

A Committee for examining and reviewing 
the' papers sent in, to consist of the President, 
Vice President, the two Secretaries and fire 
Members. 



BATAVIAN SOCIETY, XVÜ 

A Committec, consisting of four Members^ 
who will superintead the Library, the collec- 
tion of Natura! Cuiiosities, Philosophical In- 
struments, &c. iu the Museum of the Society. 

14. — A.11 Memorialsj TreatiseSj or other pa-» 
pers, raust be sent in to one of the Secretaries. 

15. — Once in each year, or as often as a suf- 
ficiënt nuntberof commanications may have been 
received, the Society willpublish a volume of its 
labours, under the name of " Transadlons of 
the Batavian Societj of Arts and Sciences/* 

16.— The Library, Collection of Natural 
Curiosities, Philosophical Instruments, and ge- 
nerally the JMuseum of the Society, is under the 
special superintendence of the Committeeabove- 
mentioned, and each Member, or stranirer ac- 
companicd by one of the Members, shali have 
free admission thereto twice every week, on 
days hereafter to be fixed. 



NAAMLYST 

DER 

TEGENWOORDIGE LEDEN 

VAN HET 



ir)*, 



PROTECTOR, 

4 

Zyno Excellentie Gilbeut Graaf van Minto. 



PRESIDENT, 
De Heer Thomas Stamford Raffles. 



VICE-PRESIDENT, 
De Heer Mr, H. W. Müntingiie. 



SECRETARISSEN, 
De Heeren J. T. Ross, Prof^ 

J. DUPUY. 
COMMÏTTEE OVER DE PaPIEKEN^ 

De Heeren J. Scbill, Fr cd. 

B. F. W Baroft von Lutzow. 

P van Zaanen. 

J I van Sevenhoven. 

Ph. Wedding, Ji. Fast. ^ 



U NAAMLrST. 

■ COMMÏTTEE OYER HILT MuSEUM, 

>e Heeren J. A. Kerst 

J. M. van Beuscclieai. 
G. Reiokiü<r. 



Bibliothecaris, 
Ph. Weddiïïg, R Past. 



Ledenv 
^e Hüereo J Siberg. 

W. V. H. van Riemsdjk, 

\y. H. van Ysseldjk* 

F. Montanus, Pred. 

N. Engelhard. 

J,. Th. Ross, Prof, Hon, 

J Schill, Pred, 

J. Th. Rt7r)st. 

W. J. Cranssen. 

Mr € A. Canter Visscher. 

P. A Goldbach. 

Mr. W. A. Senn van Basel. 

D D. Gr. vori Ranzow. 

P.Th. Chassé. 

Cf van INaerssen. 

R L. van Zittto*. 

C E< ckhout. 

F. P. Sccna. 



NAAMLYST. lU 

De Hcercn H. E. Wiltenaer. 

G. W. C. van Mofmnn, 
Th. Horsfield, Med. Doet. 
B F. W. Baron von Lutzow. 
R. Coop a Groen. 
J. A. Zwekkcrt. 

- Gravier. 
•i - Capmartin, 
w - - Verlaqué. 
- - - Froberville. 
• - Pitot. 
' - * Vincent. 
J. Th. Liesart. 

J. B. L. C. T L* Eschinault de Ja Toure; 
P. vaii Zaanen. 



J. J. Schoonenberg: 



Ö' 



ry 



J. A. Kerst. 

J. Sluiter. 

J. I. van Sevenhoven, 

Ph. Wedding, R Past. 

Mr. H. W. Muntinorhe. 

C. Mackenzie, Luit, Col. 

W. Robison,, Maj. 

A. L P. de Serriere. 

J. Ekeuhülin. 

J. Schill, jun. 

Th. S. Raffles. 



it NAAMLYSÏ. 

Be Heeren H. Hope. 

W. Filut KapiL 

W Robinson. 

Th Macquoido 

J. Lawrence. 

Ch. Assey. 

D Ainslie, Med. Doet. 

Th. Williams, Luit, 

J. M. van Beusachera. 

J. Ch. Boswel. 

J. Ch. Goldman. 

G. F. Meyïan. 

J. H. de Hoogbo 
-> ' . G. Reinking. 

D J van Boeckholt^, 

G O. van der Keer. 

P Veeris. 

A H Smissaert». 

Mr D Popkens. 

W Watt. 

J. F. Zhaetzcky, 

F E Haidy. 

G. O. Jacüb. 

Mr M J. Pipers- 

J. Jongkind. 

W. Aston, Luit» 

A. Hare, 



/ 



NAAMLVST. 

De Ileeren J. Crawfjird. 

B W. Westermann. 

J Diipuy. 

M Niahtinjrall, Maj, Gen, 

J A. van Braam. 

G. A. Addison. 

H. Sargent. 



Honoraire en corresponderende Leden^ 
De Heeren J Banks 

C. P Thunbcrg'^ Prof» 
W Marsden. 
A Seton. 
W. Miiburu. 



A 

DISCOURSE 

Dclivered at a Meeting of the Society of 
Arts and Sciences in Batavia, on the 
Tzuentyfourth day of April 1813, being 
the Anniversary of the Institution, 

BY THE HONüRABLE 

THOMAS STAMFORD RAFFLES, 

PRESIDENT. 
GExVTLEMEy, 

jf^LTHouGH I have riatiirallj witnbeld my 
signature from the address to my Lord Mïnto, 
which now lies on the table, in conseqiience of 
the very pointed marsner in which the framer of 
that address has noticed the protection and en- 
couragenient which I have pprsonaliy affbrded io 
the SocietV:, I shall have much pleasure in for- 
warding it^ and in persojially solicitiDg his 
Lordship to take the Society under his imme- 
diate patronage. — > I nm satisfied that he 
will entertain a due sense of the considera- 
tion which yoii have shewn io his exalted talent?, 
and I flatter myself that we maj confidently 

A 



2 A DIECOVRBI., &C. 

count on his promoting the views and objects of 
the Institution to the utmost eitent. 

. Elected as jout President bj the unanimoiis 
Toice of the Society^ and earnestly solicited by 
themost conspicuous of jour Meinbers to accept 
tb at station^ I have not feit nijself competent io 
decline so marked a distinction ; but I must as- 
Süre JOU tbat ï feel verj sensiblj my entire in- 
abiiitj to exccnte its important duties^ either 
with heueüt to jouor with credit tomjsel f. Far 
more preferable would it have been to me had 
this honorable post devolved upon one of jour 
more competent Members^ and tbat jou bad 
permitted ma to have mixed with jou as one of 
jour ordinarj tboughnot least zealousassociates. 

On the present occasion bowever, assembled 
as we are, in coramemoratfon of the Anniversary 
cf the ïnstitötion of the Batavian Society, with 
such fair prospects before u§ of promoting the 
original design of its establishment, under the 
anticipated protection of so illustrious a fat- 
kon, I cannot refrain from taking a general, 
thoügh imperfect review, of the progress of 
the Society, from its first institution, nor from 
indulging in the contemplation of the lights 
which the future exertions of its active and zeal- 
ous Members, manj throw oa man and nature- 
in these remole regions. 



A DISCOÜRSE, &C. S 

lil common vvith other human Institutions the 
Batavian Society has been subject to many 
changes ^nd vicissitudes ; but it is to the ca- 
lamitous effects of a war vvhich has desolated 
the finest countries in Europe^ and which extend- 
cd its baneful influence to this distant Isle, that 
we are principally to atlribute its decline. Cüt 
oïï froin all com-nunication with the Mother- 
€ountrj, and distracted by internal jealonsiesand 
disputes, Science drooped, and this Society, 
which at one time maintained so distiniriiished a 
character,, almost ceased to be known. 

The Batavian Society has, I believe^ thehonor 
of being the ürst Institution of a Literary na- 
ture established by Eiiropeans in the East — ^ 
Previousto its establishment^ Wr. Radermacher, 
a gentleman of distinguished talents and a zeal- 
ous promoter of the Christian Religion, and of 
Science, with a few friends at Batavia^, conceiv- 
ed the idea of assembling together a number of 
persons of eons^ideration and ability, with the 
view of encouraging the Arts and Sciences in this 
Capital and i\\e other Indian Establishments 
then dependant on Holland. They considered 
that in India as in Europe^ where for tvvo een- 
turies the reformation in letters preceded that 
ia religion^ a taste for the Arts and SeienccH niiist; 



4 A DISCOURSE, &C. 

he introdüced previously to the general adoptiop. 
of the Cbeistian Religion in the Eiist; butthey 
were aware of the diSiculties to be enconnter- 
ed under the circumstances ia which tlie Colouies 
of Holland were then placed, and a considerabie 
period elapsed before the design was carried 
into effect. 

At leiigtb, in the year 1777^ when Mr. Rader- 
macher and bis father-in-law, the Governor Ge- 
neral De Klerk, were iiewlj elected Directors of 
the S()cietj of Haerleni^ a Programma appeared, 
which contained the plan of extending the 
branches of that Society to the ïndies. The dis- 
taTiCe and extent of ihe Dnlch Colonial posses- 
sions in the E ist, did not however admit of this 
plan being realized^ but the idea being thns 
brought forward to public noticc^ a separate 
Society was^ by the uniemitting perseverance of 
Mr. Rad er ma dier, who may be called the 
founderofthe lustitution, establiahed at Bntavia. 

On the 24th of April^ 1778, this Society was 
duly cstablished under the authorify of Govern 
ment, and afler the example of liiierleinj took 
for its motto, The Public ütilihj. On its first 
organizalion the Society consiï^ted of 192 Mem- 
bcrs^ tha Goveraor General being Chief Dircc- 



A DISCOURSEj &C. 5 

tt>r, and the Members of the High Regcncy 
Direclors. The ordirmry Metubers v/ere elcctcd 
from amonir the most distin.«:uisbed iiihabitants 
of Batavia^ and the possesslons of the Company ; 
and it was eiiacted^ that as many as were present' 
should annually hoid a g'eneral assembij, in oï- 
der to jiidge and decide upon the answers re- 
ceived to the different qiieslions proposed, to 
propose new questions, and to niake generaï re- 
gnhitions. In addition to tbis general direclioo, 
a Comnriitlee was nonisaafeJ, coosistisjg of eight 
Members, with ^ President and Secretary^ who 
were charged with the daily occurrences, and 
witb anthority to decide upon and carry iut^ ef- 
fect whatever might not admit of delaj^ report- 
ing their proceedings at the ensuiog genera! as- 
sembly, 

The Society selected as objects of research 
and enquiry, whatever could be usefiil to agri- 
Guhure, commerce, and the welfare of the Colo- 
ny; it encouraged every question relatfng to na- 
tural hiatory, antiqnities, and the manners and 
usages of llie Native inhabitants, biit exprrss]j 
avoided entering upon any subject which might 
relate to the East India Company ; and in order 
the better to define the objects and contribnte to 
their accomplishnirnt, a Programma was from 
time tü time priuted and circüluted abroad. 



6 A DÏSCOURSE^ <£e. 

These Programmas contain many impartant 
questious^ as well genera! as particuIaTj relatiiig 
to agricuUore, commerce, the means of removing 
the insainbrity of Batavia^ the diseases of the 
climate generally, and other poiiits whieh clear- 
Ij mark the objerts of the Society. Among 
these^ the followiag qaestioii raay deserve no-r 
tice : — 

^' Bij wJiaf means of finesse do the PreacJiers 
'^ andJvïissionaries of the Moslem f aiih succeed, 
'' even at the present daif, in converting P^ans 
^' to tkefaith of the Koran, and in estaMlshing 
'^ theni in thisfaith." 

Althoiigh it would seem that this qiiestion 
might either have been answered generally bj 
stating *■*■ that the Mahomedans at the present 
^' day owe their success principallij to their 
'^ more intimate assimilation 'üoith those to be 
^^ converted,'* Or perhaps eventually by '"' a 
V philosophical and poliiical view of the jïrst 
^' establishment of ihe Mahomedan Religion 
*' on the Islands and Coasts of the Seas lijing 
'' East of the Straits of Malacca and Sunda.'* 
It does not appear to have been replied to in any 
of the subsequent volumes. 

The view which I have just mentioned scems 
to fall peculiarly within the province of the So- 



A DlSCOTIRSEj ScC, 7 

clefVj and to be h'izhly deser^ing its attention ; 
it is a part of historv, ^^hich seems bither- 
to to have been too little incest igated, and a 
tract on the subject, while it dïscussed the que?- 
tioQ alluded to, would oaturaffv introdoee other 
important object?. 

The Societj was eg sooner fullj established 
and its proceedio^s srenerallv knowo, than it re- 
ceived frora all qïiarters various acquisitions to 
its cabinetand librarv. Mr. RadermücJierhim* 
«elf presepted the Societv with a conYenient 
house and with eight cas^s of Taluable book?, a 
collection of animals, fo?si!s, minerals, musical 
instruments of the Javanese, and of the different 
coins current in the East ; and in the «ame vear, 
bj the liberaltty of Mr. Bartto, the Societv was 
enabled to form a Botanica! Establishment in a 
garden presented bj that Gentleman. 

In 1TT9 the Societv ondertook to print toa 
first ToluTïie of iis Transactions ; the second ap- 
peared in 1780^ and the ihird in ITSl, but fruni 
the want of tjpe? and other unfortunate circnm- 
stances. a Programma or.lv appeared in ITS^, 
In 1786 the 4th volume was bowever given to 
tbe public, but printed in Holland bv the C» m- 
mi?23ries of the Societj, «nder the special privi- 
lege of the States General. 



S A DÏSCOÜRSE, &C. 

After tbis period the Societv observino- that 
ihe questions proposed rcmained woanswered, 
'set io work themselves and publisbed the 5th 
volume in 1790. In tbis and tlie 6th volume^ 
W'hich appeared m 1792^ ihe Essa js are written 
exclusivelv bv the Members. 

In 1794 ihe two first Essajs intended for the 
7th volume were printed ; but no subsequent 
publication of the transactions of the Society 
appears to have takeo place. 

Subsequent to tbis period, when the revolu- 
tions in Europe, the war and other circumstan- 
ces of the timeSj continued to interfere with the 
prosperity of the Society^ it was suggested h"^ some 
of the MemberSj that by adopting a more 
limited plan for its proceedings^ the objects 
which \\ie Society had in view might still be 
be obtaJned ; and accordingly a resolution ap- 
pears to have been taken to this effect^ to 
which the approval of the High Regency was 
obtained in May 1800. 

UncJer this new organization of the Society, 
the '' Public Utilitj" was still the declared ob- 
ject of the Institution ; but the publication of 
questions, except at the particular suggestion of 
any Member was discontinued. The Society 
still contiiiued to consist of mea of ability and 



A DISCOURSE, &C. 9 

talent. The dircction of the Society wasplaced 
in the hands of a Directory of nine persons in- 
cludmg the Secretary, ^vho were chosen from 
among the Members^ each taking prccedence ia 
his turn for one month. Corresponding Mem- 
bcrs were eiected at the principal settlenients 
and out-stations, and the genera! annual assem - 
blies were abolished. In the hands of this 
Directory the Society appears to have deposited 
every thing ; and considering thedistracted state 
of the country^ such a conduct raay perhaps have 
been essential for maintaining its existence during* 
the convulsed period which ensued. 

Notwithstandingthe exertions of the Directory 
to complete the seventh volume, it was found 
impracticablcj and the oniy acquisitions which 
it appears to have obtained during the period in 
which the alFairs of the Society were exclusive- 
ly under its management^ are the Communica- 
tions of Dr. Thomas Horsfield. This Gentle- 
man was proposed io the High Regency^ and 
authorized to prosecutehis Botanieal Researches 
under the sanclion of Government. After seve- 
ral exc\irsions in different parts of the Island, he 
established himself at Souracarta with the view 
of forming a Flora Javana, forwarding to the 
Society from time to time reports of his pro- 

B 



10 A DISCOURSE, &C, 

grcsSj dried plantsand useful descriptionsand ac- 
counts of discoveiies made by hiin ia Natural 

Historj. 

Such was the state of tlie Society at the 
change of Governmeüt in 181 1;, wben the dark 
perspective was illiimined, and the talents 
and ambition of the Society ap:aiii shone forth 
from the obscurity in which poiitical eircum- 
stances had involved \i. 

Without noticing partieularly the various 
Essays which adorn the pages of the six volumes 
of the transactions already published^ I shall 
briefly observe that as far as my limited know- 
ledge of the language enables me to judge, they 
contain much oseful and intei^esting information, 
partieularly on economical subjects materially 
connected with the interests of Science and Lite- 
rat ure. 

In the first volume will be found an interest- 
ing description of the Dutch possessions in the 
East Indies, and the transactions are replete with 
various valuable tracts on agriculture, com- 
merce, poiitical economy, and natural history^, by 
Xvlessrs. BadermacJier, Van Hogendorp, Hootj" 
mauy Van lp er en y Baron Van Wurmh, Con- 
perus, Van der Steege^ Titsing, TessierCj Van 
JBoeckhoUz, and others. 



A DISCOURSE, &C. 11 

Having tlius taken a retrospective view of the 
Society, from ils fiist iiistitution until the period 
when it was new modelled uiider the regulations 
of last year, I shall proceed bricflj to notice 
the contents of the volume, which is now sent 
to the Press^ and to communicate such sug-ges- 
tions as occur to nie with regard to our future 
proceedings. 

In various branches of Natural History, 
Doctor Horsfield is eminently conspicuous, and 
the papers which will now come before the 
public from his pen, are highly interesting to 
Science. On the 4ntiquities and Native History 
of the ïsland, some light is thrown by Lieute- 
pant Colonel Mackenzie, Surveyor General oa 
the Madras Establishment, in his interesting 
Tract on the Ruins of Prambana, forming the 
Capital of one of the early dynasties of this 
Island ; and on the Island of Borneo^ some in- 
teresting data are furnished on which to found 
our further enquiries in that immense Island, 
from the pen of the late Dr. Leyden. The cir- 
cumstances under which this paper was writtea 
are stated in a note annexed to the paper itself. 

Had our late valuable Secretary, Dr. Hicnfcr, 
been spared hut a few months, the present volume 
Would not have uade its appearance without 



12 A DÏSCOÜRSE^ &C. 

containing some highly interesting Essav from 
him, His death is deeply deplored by us allj 
as must for ever be the unexpected and an* 
timely fate of my departed friend Dr. Lei/den, 
whoj althoogh not actually initiated as a 
Member of this Society, came from the other 
India panting after knowledsre and busy in the 
pursuit of Science. Had Providence ordained 
that he should have remained a few months on 
this Island in the exercise of the wonderful 
powers of his ever active mind^ I am convinced, 
that from his cxtraordinary acquirement? in all 
the languages of the East, his deep erudition, 
and his zeal in the cause^ he would have foimd 
it no difficult task to have traced the connection 
"which formerly subsisted between the Eastern 
Islands, and Western liidia, from a comparison 
of their languages and dialects only. His views 
were the most extended and comprehensive that 
a philosophic mind can conceive. Ardent in the 
pursuit of knowledge in every direction, and 
rising v/ith difficulties, his uncommon mind and 
rare taleats must naturally have overcome every 
obstacle. 

A more convincing proof cannot perhaps be 
offercd of the views which he contemplated^ 
ifi setting his foot in this capital of the Eastero 
Isiaiids. than in the sketch of Borneo^ which 



A DISCOURSE, &C. 13 

I have just noticed. Tliis was prepared by 
him 011 his passage frorn Malacca to Batavia 
during the progress of the Expedition. It 
stands uncorrected by his masterly hand, bat 
even in its present state^ will^ I have no doubt, 
be found to merit a place iu your publications. 

Irreparable as the loss of these inestimable 
promoters of our design and ornaraents of our 
age must be, and deep as our regret may be feit, 
we are not to despair of what may hereafter be 
done; but rather^ from the loss we have sus- 
tained, put our shoulders more firmly to the 
wheel, and exert ourselves more than under 
other more fortunate circumstances, would have 
been necessary, 

The first point which it appears to me essen- 
tial to notice with regard to our future proceed- 
ings, is the necessity of encouraging and attain- 
ing a more general knowledge of the Javanese 
language. Hitberto the communication with 
inhabitants of the country bas been chiefly 
through illiterate Interpretors, or when direct^ 
through the medium of a barbarous dialect of 
MalaySj confounded and confused by the intro- 
duction of Portuguese and Diitch. Without 
a thorough knowledge of this language, it is im- 
possible to form any accurate idea of the modes 



M A DISCOURSE, &C, 

of thinking or acting among the people of this 
coüiitry. Much valiiable itiformation niaj be 
espected to be found in their books^ and when 
they are more generalij known^ an attempt maj 
be made to develope the early history of the 
ïslandj which^ with the exception of sonne lead- 
iog facts^ remains anterior to the introduction of 
MahoKiedanisrn^ involved in obscuritj and fable. 

I have alreadj ia my possession three detail- 
ed histories of the Isicind, stated to betaken from 
their owfi written aceounts ; hut as they have 
passed through one, and in somc cases two in-t 
termediate languagps, and the persons intrusted 
with the first translation not perhaps under- 
standing the subject^ I cannot depend upon them. 



Vocabiilaries have already been colleeted of 
the different d il lects of the Javanese, and also of 
the principal Ian« uages in the Eastern seas, and 
from the imremitting and indefatigable exertions 
of Colonel Mackenzte, whose researches into the 
history and antiquities of Western India, so 
eminently qnalify him for simiiar pursuits ia 
this quarter, we are justified in the expectation 
that many of thedoubtful points regarding the 
early connection of Java and the Eastern Islands 
with the Continent of India will be cleared up. 



A DISCOÜRSE, &C, 15 

Tlie collections of Colonel Mackenzie, who 
lias personally visited almost evosy part of the 
Islanci, prove the zeal wiih whicb he has takcu 
up the subject; and on his return to India, where 
an opportunity rnay be afforded of dccyphcr- 
in2:J'e\eral iuscriptions found in different parts 
of Java, of which he bas taken fac simüies, 
we are proniised that bis exertions will not be 
relaxed in endeavoring to illustrate wbatevec 
Hiay be important. 

The opportunity afforded of increasing our 
siock of Javanese Manuscripts has not been lost, 
and if the Governinent sbould be enabied 
io prosecute a plan which is in contenipla- 
tion tor forming an eslabiishment for the ac- 
quisition of the language, we may hope that 
transiations of the most important wili soou 
find a piace on the shelves of our library. 

Dr. Horsfield still continues hls pursuits in 
Natural History^ with unabated zeal; and al- 
though he has been for a time removed from the 
iinmediate field of Java^ he is proseciiting in a 
neighbouring Island, pursuits of a similar na- 
ture. The Island of Banca, which has lately 
fallenintothe possession of our Government, had 
never been explored by Europeans. Dr. Hors- 
field has undertakcn the task, and from hi:- ta.- 



16 A DÏSCOURSE;, &C. 

lents, abilitj, and industry> the most sanguine 
expcctations mav be realized. 

Pvlr. JMimtinghe alsa^ wbose eniarsred views 
and extraordinarj eodowments so peculiarlj qna- 
lifj bim to direct you in the paths of Science and 
liiterature^ will not be wanting in contributing 
Iiis share to the general purposes of the Societj. 
He bas ah'oady collected many highly inter- 
csting tracts on the Native Laws and ïnstitutions 
as i\ïQv are traced to have existed antecedent to 
the introduction of the Mahomedan faith ; and 
when bis inforniation is more mature and bis 
coliections more complete, we are jiistiSed in 
the expectation^ tbat be will devote to the. So- 
ciety some portion of tbat extcnsive stock of 
iiterary acqairement and sound judgrasut for 
which he stands so eminently conspicuous. 

To the learned Professor Ross, i\\e Societv 
ia ah'eady bi^hiy indebted^ and while we cannot 
bilt Gonsider our thanks as peculiarly due to this 
Gentleman for b.is e^^ertions in preserving tbe 
existence of tbe Society duriug a period of pccu- 
liar delicacy and difficulty/ I am satisfied tbat 
we mav look to him and theother Dutcb Members 
for tbe most essential aid in future. To parti- 
cularize in many of these Members would per- 
liaps be iiividious to the whole^ but if I may be 



A DISCOÜRSE, &C, n 

alfowed to introducé the names of Engelhard^ 
Couperus and l^an J^'aersen, and to calculatc on 
tlie advantages which must bc derived from the 
investigations and Communications of these Gen- 
tlemen, X am §ure there are few among us wbo 
will not readily admit their claim to pre»emi-: 
nence and distinction. 

Without entering on the various snbjects 
which offer themselves for enquiry on Java^ and 
which^ not to intrude on vour time at present, 
niay be more advantageously introduced in a list 
öf Desiderata, I sball confine mjself to a few 
observations on the present state of the Coun- 
tries in its vicinity which seera most to dem^nd 
attention. 

The Members of the Society must have been 
forcibly struck with the rapid progress made by 
the Asiaiic Society ^"^ Calciitta ; an Institution 
of recent date^ compared with that established 
at Batavia ; and however much the decline of 
the latter may be attributed to the political 
circumstances already stated, I am inclined to 
think^ that its decay may in some degree have 
been accelerated by the nature of its constitu* 
tion. A very essential change has lately been 
effectcd, and the Regulations of the Batavian 

C 



lö A BïSCOÜESf:, &c. 

«Soc/V(?/ liave been iiew niodelied, nearly on the 
same priiiciple as4hose of the Asiatic Societj ia 
Bengal. Altlioiigh^ thereforev/we maj not at the 
present mooieiit boa&t of so inaoj eminent Lite*^ 
rarj Charactefs as are to be fouad aiaong the 
Members of that Societv^ it is biit fa;ir to flatter 
ourselves with the expectation^ that under the 
foitunate change of circunastances which has 
taken pbce, with regard to this Island^. and the 
iievv organization of the Soeie4.j, our exertiona 
maj tend considcrabJj to a belter knowledge of 
this part of the World, and the genera! advance- 
ment of Literature and Science. 

The objects of the Asiatic Societj in Calciitta, 
are so foliy explained in the discourses of Sir 
Wiiïiam Jones^, that it is tmnecessary to enter 
into aoy espbinatioo of them here. The research» 
es of (hal Society are not coiifi4ied imniediately 
to Western lüdia ; <hey cstend throughont the 
whole re«:ion5 of As-ia. The whole circle of the 
Sciences and the wide üeld of Asia, are alike 
open to your observation^ hut it occurs to me, 
tha( Ibe int<Tests and object of the ïnstitiitioii 
wiil be more advan^aiieously promoted by its ex- 
ertions being directed to what fails more imme* 
diateiy >Yithiü your reach. 



X DïSCOUUSE, &C. }9 

ït IS iö what bas been emphatically termed 
the '' FüRTHER èast" that I would direct jour 
more immediate attenlion ; and here^ if I ani not 
mistaken, an ample field is afforded. The Histo» 
ry of Sumatraj by Mr. Marsderiy has throwii sa 
clear a Hght on the country and character of 
the inhabitantSj that i have bat to refer you to 
ihat valuable woric for all tbat is jtt known res- 
pecting that interesting ïsland. Mucb^ hovvever, 
stil} i'emiiinsto be done, even in this quarter, and 
our recent coMnection with Palernbane;, and the 
Southern Provinces of the Islandj promises to 
aiïord every faciiity to our eiiquiries. Of Ban- 
ca, we shall no dovibt possess the most accurate 
and interestiiig iaforination, on the return of Dr. 
Hovsfieldi and as our recent establishment ia 
that quarter forms a new centre from which our 
enqniiies may diverge, the various countries in 
its vicinity will no doubt be early e^plored. 

Of the chain of ïslands lyins: Eust of Java, 
and w^ith it denorainated g;enerally the Sunda 
ïslands, I shall only notice particularly that of 
Bali. This ïsland lies so close to Java, that it 
is surprising so little is known of ïi. All ac- 
counts agree, that vestiges of the Hindu or 
B'hudist religion, perhaps of both, are still tobe 
found. Some accounts go so far as to state^ that 



20 A DISCOURSEj &C. 

in the interior of the country, the inhabitaiitê^ 
are divided into four tribes, termed Brcimana^ 
Sudra, Wazicr, and Sutra ; and it is certain, 
that on the final establishment of the Maho- 
medan religion in Java, the Hiodus or B'hu- 
dists who remained unconverted, took refuge in 
thatlsland. I will not venture fnrther on this 
ünknown gróünd, feeling satisfied that another 
year will not be allowed to pass bj without per- 
sonal observation on the spot hy some inquisi* 
tive enquirer, 

We have hitherto onlj adverted to the conn- 
tries Ijing in the more iramediate vicioity of Ja- 
va, but in extending the prospect and directiiig 
our views Eastward to the other Islands of the 
Archipelago, our attention is forcibly attracted 
by the great Island of Boroèo, hitherto a blank 
on the chart of the world. From the best in- 
forraation we have vet been able to obtain of 
this immense Island, greater in extent than any 
civilized nation of Europe, and abundantiy rich 
in the most valuable natural productious, it 
would appear that the whole country was, at no 
very reraote period, divided under the three Era- 
piresof Borneo, Sucadana, and Banjer Masin, of 
Wjhich the reigning Princes of the two lattcf;, 
tracé their descent from Mah'japahit in Java, 



A OïSCOURSE, &C. 21 

ïiornco or B'rni, now tornied bj us Eorneo 
Proper, baving been the first port visited by 
Ëuropeiins, may have given rise lo the name of 
Bonieo being erroneously appiied to the whole 
Isiaiid, which by the native inhabitanls, and uni- 
versaDy by the Ëastern States, is tenned Pnla 
K'lemantan. lts PrinceS deduce their on'gin 
from the Sultans of Johor, but such is the 
wretched state to which their country bas fallen. 
that they posscss little more than norainal au- 
thority, except en the immediate Spot of their 
residciice. 

Sucadar.a^though the most conspicwous inlatter 
times, is now reduced to little more than a name. 
To the rise of Sambas, Pontiana, and other 
petty states on its numerouS rïvers, originating 
in grants and usurpatlons of various portions 
of the Empire, the destruction of the seat of 
Government bv the Dntch, and the 2;eneral im- 
becility and want of enterprize on the part of the 
reigning Princcs, may be attributed the state into 
which the present possesBor of the title bas lat- 
terly fallen. He resides entirely at Matan, an 
inconsiderable pluce far up an adjacent river. 
ThisPrince still possesses the largc diamond which 
bas been for eight gencrations in bis family, but 
retains little other valuable appendage or con- 
sideration to support either bis rank or authority. 



?^ A DISCOÜRSE, &C. 

Banjer Blasin, although not much indebtedti^ 
the interference of the Dütch iii promoting its 
internal improvernent, still ovves niMch of its re«"^ 
maiiiing rcspectabilitj as a State to the protectioa 
afForded bj the presence of the European au- 
thoritj. Deprivedj, however, hitterlj of that sup- 
port^ convuUed by the cousequences of the mea-^ 
sures which cloaed the period of Dutch inüii- 
ence, and exposed to the inroads of piratica! 
enterpri^e, it \yas rapidly falling into decav, and 
in a short period its Princes would perha^^s have 
had little more to boast than those of Siica^ 
dana^ had not the fostering care of the Euro* 
pean power been again extended by theencour- 
agementgiven to the v/isbes and expectatio;^s of 
the reigning Prince, whose condnct alFords^ 
amongst raany others, a convincnig proof how 
Tniich the inferests, welfare^ and even existence of 
the Native States depend on the ability and cbar« 
acter of the reigning Prince.* 

A more intimate acquaintanee with Banjer 
Masin than with the other parts of the Island, 
enables us to gpeak more decidedly with regard 
to the progress of civilization ia the interior of 

* The Factory of BaTijer Masin was wjthdrawn, an;! the connectioa 
abanöoned by the Dutch, eirly in 1809, the Sultan [•urchasino; for the 
sutn of 50,C0a Rix Dollars the Forts aad Buildiügs, on hls being- 
dcclafcd iodefc-adcnt. 



the country, and the gencral state of the Sontherii 
Provinces. Somcthing has already been wiiitea 
on the Nurtliern part, and the setliements former- 
ly maiiitained by the Eiiglisb, have throwri som^ 
Ijo-ht on the character of tiie country and habits 
of the popuiation in that quarter ; the in- 
lerference which has been found rcquisite, for the 
itnmed'ate suppression of piracy in the States 
formerlv appertaining to Sncadana, w'11 also af- 
ford the nieans by which ranch intecesting Infor- 
mation wiir be obtained from thence. 

Banjer Masin, in common with Java, still re« 
tains some vestig^s of Hindu antiquity;, and 
among others ft may not be uninterestingtonotice 
theeircum&tanceof •the Sultan being in posses- 
sion of a Gv^lden Tortoise with several rings, oii 
which aieengraved the tigurrs of Ishzvara and 
ether Hindu Deities, and impressions of the Cow 
aud Elephaiit.* 

Of the popnhition of the Island^^all that we 
are vet justified in saying is that the Moslems 
appear to have established themselves in authori- 
iy over the aborigines^ whoare generally terincd 



* The manner in which the Golden Torfoise was discovered is 
Ihus related — " In (he rcign of the former Sultan, a native of Banjer 
** Masin, wl)en at Sca in campany with a KUng or native cf the Coast 
" cf Cüromandel, ascertalueJ from conversation ihat the laticr, whi> 



S4 A BISCOURSE, &C. 

Orcsng Dayak, 'm those parts of the coqntrj ad-^ 
jacetit to settlements wliich thej have formed on 
the bank» of the many Rivers. with which the 
ïslaiid is watered. These extend some distance 
iiiland, but the Mahomedan infiiieiice has not 
spread far into the iaterior. Indeed, the mis$ 
©f the popolation which maj have sobmitled to 
the Moslem Chiefa^ still remain uncoaverted to 



*^^ was a Hindu, had a secret object io proceeding to Bai^jer Mastn, 
" and at length discovered that objVct to he the rccv» ery of property 
" belongiag to his ancestors^ >fhich appeared to Tie buriei in the 
" earth at a place called Miratnpiaü. Stimulated by the e:ipiie<a'iou 
*'' of gain, he dissuaded the Hinda from imavediafely pro^^ciiting liis 
*' object^ and b&ut his own course directly to thQ spot, where, after 
" digging toa oonsiderable depth he discovered several coiupartmeuts 
*' inclosed by walls, io one of which he Toimd the Tortoise with» 
•^pot of gold-dust on the back." ïnteingence bein-g immediately 
carried to the Sultan, his further researches were prevented, in con- 
Söquence of the spot being seized as a droit of royalty, after which 
no further iisvestigatioa appears to have taken place. The Co^r is 
s'iid to be never seen anaongthe emblems of lïindti or Vedaatic My- 
thology ; but the Ox freqüently. The Elephant is introduced raerely 
a? an oniament, exccjH when repeated in certaia s^tories with other 
figures of the Drama. The Elephant exhibitedon the Soal Ringmay 
have some allu^ioa to the Calinga or Telinga state, the chief of which 
"^yas denomlnated the Gaja Putly or Lord of Elephants. In 11 ke man- 
ier as the Chief or King of the Camatic was denominate<l Nara 
Putiy or Lord of Men., but the Seal of Camatic was a TVild ITog.-— 
Pillars and remains of buildings, evidently traces of a more enlighten- 
ed popnlation at a rcmote period, have been noticed a considcrable 
way up the river ; but until that part of the country is visitcd by 
Europcans, it would be premature to offer any observation ou thcir 
origin and desiga. 



A DISCOUllSE^ &C. »5 ;. 

the Mahomedan faithj and in the iuterior their 
habits are so barbarous as to prevent all inter- 
coLirse, even with the Mahomedans most in their 
vicinity. Those subjected to the Mahomedans 
appear to be niostly tractable and of mild dis- 
position, but sö wretchedly sunk in barbarous 
stupidity as to sutfmit to every indignity without 
resijstance, while those who still retain their ia^ 
dependence, and who are to be considered as the 
bulk of the original population^ forni innumera- 
ble ferocious tribes^ constantly at variance with 
each otherj and individually rejecting internal 
Government and controul. 

It may be a question whether the present state 
of society among the unsubdued inhabitants is 
to be attributed to any marked distinction be- 
tvveen them and those who have submitted tö the 
Mahomedan rulcj or whether the barbarity 
wliich now disgraces human nature, may not be 
traced in agreat measure to the conduct observ- 
ed to those who have submitted to a foreign in- 
fluence. Be this as it may, it is a lamentable 
fact not to bedisputed, that at the present daj^ 
almost within sight of Java, the sacrifice of 
human beings at ceremonies and festivals is so 
common that cnterprizes are undertakeu divested 

D 



^6 A orscoüRSE^ &C\ 

of every other object but the attainment of liiï«* 
lïian beings for such oGcasionsv 

Whpre sucBpradices are prevalent, \t is nottc? 
berxpectel that a country can bonst estensive 
population ; indeed, under such cireumstaJices it 
may rather be matter of surprize tbat B )rneo 
should bes^opopiilousasit is. Happily there is no 
state of hurïïaii nature so debased as not to afibrd 
a field for improvement, and altbough the borrid 
custora alladed to wouTd seem to check any 
sanguine hope of a rapid rhange being* effect J 
ed, therearesometraitsto be foiïnd, even in these 
Savages^ which afford an opening for intercourse 
and consequent imarovement. They are not 
without ïndustry, and wben mH by candour 
anti kind treatment are rather disposed thin; 
otherwise to a trading intercoiirse. Frommild 
and judicious management rauch may be ex- 
pected. 

From what ha^ heen said of the present state- 
®f Borueo^ itf)llows that we are not to calenlate 
on any immediate additionto our stoc'v of useful 
arts, but as every untrodd(*n path affords sorae 
ïtew inciternent to the inquisitive niind, we may 
look for much in the various branches of Na- 
iural History; — to the phiiosophie mind a 
wide and iateresting field is opened, and while 



A DfscotinsE, Slc» ^^ 

^c contemplate in a political point of view the 
advantag-s which must resuit from bringing 
ibrth and directing in a proper course the latent 
«nergies and resources of so large a portion of 
the habitable globe, it must be a plea^ing re- 
flecfion to the Philanthrophist that so many of 
our fellovv creatures are thus gradually retrieved 
from ignorance, barbarism and self destru<ïtion. 

Mueh valuable and interesting informatioa 
has already beea collected bj Mr. Alexander 
Hare, the present Resident, a gentleman whosa 
desire after useful knowledge and whose zealou$ 
«xerti )ns ia the cause he has undertaken^ are 
perhaps unri valled^ and frora the progress which 
l\e has already made in developing the general 
oature of the country and character of its in^ 
habitants, the happi^st results may be contem*- 
plated. He has already made several incur- 
sionSj and proj'jcts at an early period penetrat- 
ing far into the interior of the country. Ui)dex* 
liis enlightened administratioa the country sub- 
jected to Banjer Masin has been already re- 
duced to order and regulationj and it is reasonable 
to expectthat the short^s of all Borneo may ia 
time be approached without danger^ aud the po^ 
pulation of the interior open to safe and geuer*| 
communication. 



Proceeding east, our progress is arresfed by 
the Celebes, an Island as remarkable for itg 
peculiar shape, as for the martial and commer- 
cial enterprize of a great portion of it*, inba- 
bitants. Of this Island^ bowever^ we yet know 
but Vittle that is to be depended iipon, except of 
the south west limb^ and the immediate neigb- 
bourbood of the north east point. 

Amongtbe records of the Dutcb Government 
a very interesting map of the soutb-western 
limb^ bas been found ; and from the minuteness 
and abilitj with which it appears to be execiited, 
it promises to tbrow much ligbt on the general 
nature of the country ; and will at all events 
facilitate a more accurate survey wbenever cir- 
cumstances may admit of sucli an undertakfng, 

The most prominent nations in this part of 
Celebes are the Bugis and Macasar or Jllenga- 
^sar, but hitherto we have only discovered one 
Written character^ distinct from every other in 
the Eastern Islands. The Mahomedan religion 
prevalls generally througbout this part of thft 
Island;, but in the northern provinces, bevond 
Mandhar, and generally in every interior part 
of the Island^ human nature appears nearly in 
^e samc rude state as we have described it iq 
tb€ iüterior of Bqraeo. 



A DlSCOUESr, Sec. 2') 

The pcople are, ho wever, knov/n under tlie 
general denoniinatlon of Alfiir or Ar af ar a^ 
wliich term is extended to the same descriptlon 
of inbabitants in tbc Islands furtber East ; tbcse 
last do not appear to dilTer essentially from tlie 
Orang Dai/ak of Borneo^ and miiy witb tbem 
bc considered as tbo Aborigines of tbese Islands. 
The Celebes, from its peculiar ügure, seerns ad- 
mirably adapted for tbe purposes of commercial 
intercourse; and altboiigb but a verj small 
portion seems yet to liave ad vaneed to any degree 
of cirilization, tbev are rénowned amons: olber 
eastern nations for tbe spirit of comraerce and 
war. Tbey have establisbed var.iqus colönies 
on tbe opposite coast of BorneOj and on tbe 
sbores of tbe adjacent Islands, and even maintain 
an inÜuence ofno inconsiderable weigbt in tbe 
politics of tbc Malayan States west as far 
as tbe straits of Malacca. Tbe Biigis and 
Macasar nations, like the Javanese, are nations 
perfectly distinct from tbe Pylalays ; but we are 
not yet suSiciently acquainted witb tbe Native 
History to assert bow far tbey are entitled to be 
considered as tbe indigenpus inbabitants of tb^ 
country. 

We know pretty acciirately tbe date of tbe in 
troduction of tbc Mabomcdan faith, and sonie 



ieading circmnstances relating to the conversion 

ofthepeople; but ffom the ad vaneed state of 

their civilizatian compared with that of the 

*Arafuras, it raust be inferred^ that at the period 

of its introduction^ ihej had attained a coiisi?- 

derable degree of improvemeat beyond t]ie bulk 

of the population; and indeed, we are bora^ out 

by tradition and history in the belief that in this 

part of the Island there existed a povverful Na- 

tion, long antecedent to the introduction of Ma- 

boinedanism. We are not, however^ prepared to 

saj from what foreigo quartec this portion of 

the Native population v/as fust civilized, and 

we are not jet informed, whether^ as in Java, 

any traces are to be found of Hinduis[2. Ou 

these points, and in short on every essential 

point, we have much to learn ; and the field is 

so important and iritere^ting, that I Hatter mv- 

self the period is not far distant^ vyhen the pages 

of our transactions naay throw much light oa 

the subject. We have already, as I before no- 

ticcdj obtained through the assistance of Captain 

FJullips, the Resident, very extensive vocabula- 

ries of the language, and the enquiries which 

have been set on foot by thai Gentleman at the 

suggestion of the Society, promise the most ia^ 

teresting result» 



A DlSCOÜRSËj &C. Si 

Purther E:ist lies the Island of CAlolo or Ha" 
tamahira, vvhich is situated bet ween the Moluc- 
cas and the Papua Islands, as Celehes itself is 
situated between the Molnccas and Borneo. Gi- 
lolo bas sometimes, froTn its form^ been denomin- 
ated little Celebes. With the Western Co«st of 
this ïslandj we are less acquainted> but the inha- 
bitants of the Eastern Coa^ts, especiallj those of 
Asa and Maba, are, from their connection on the 
Moluccas, well known. These, however, would 
appear to occupy a small portion of the country 
conipared with the Alfürs, that we can hardiy 
be said to be jet fully acquainted Svith the bulk 
of the inhabitants.. 

On this Island therefore, and the groupe of 
smaller Islands in its neighbourhood, including 
the Moluccas, the first object appeats to be that 
of ascertaining correctlj what is aire;idy known ; 
and after reducing the same to s^uch a forai as 
may furnish a basis, or at least determined points, 
frooi which to proceed on further enquiry and 
investigation, to persevere steadily in the aitaiu- 
ment of what is deficiënt. Our inforrnation oci 
the natura! hi&tory of the Moluccas is perhapa 
more comDletethan that of anv resiion of tlie 
East^ and it is not amona: the least distirguished 
records of our Society, that we ünd a Manu- 



S2 A DISCOÜRSE, &C. 

Stript copj of an origiual work of the cele* 
brated lïmnphius, 

I fear I have alrêadj detained jou too long in 
thüs pai tic ulari zing the present state of these 
Islandsj considering' that however inteiesting 
and important thej' maj be^ as I ving contiguous 
to the seat of our deliberatioiis^ ^hej embrace 
bat^ small poitioAi of the exteasive tract, which 
lajs open to the Society, evea withia the range 
that I am dcsirous of defining, To enter upoa 
the whole^ otherwise than generalijn would be 
ibreign to the object of the present discourse, 
and I am far from being competent to undertake 
thetask; but while I hastily pass over New 
Guinea and New Holland, vvith the immerous 
islands of the Southern seas, reserving the ob- 
servations which occur on these for a future oc- 
casion, I cannot refrain from noticing the rapid 
progress of the European settlements in the more 
Southern par(s of New Holland, and aiiticipat- 
ing the practicability of obtaining, in concert 
vvith men of research in that quarter, earl j and 
interesting information on raanj important points 
which stiii remain doubtful. 

Much has been said and collected bj Mr. 
Dalrymple on the Sulu Islands, and on the large 
Island of JMindanaivioï Majindauau, but ii must 



A BISCOURSE, &C. S3 

be confessed^ that vory little light is yei tbrown 
on tli(^ History of Man in those regions — the 
mine is sfill unexplored^ and from the notice in 
the writings of the Seignor Margarette and 
others on Luconia and the Pbilipine Islands, 
much may still be expected 'm aid of what bas 
already been siig"gested. 

From the intimate political connection now 
opening with the Spanisb possessions in both beni'- 
ispheres, th^ peiiod is^ I trust, not far distant, 
when an intercourse between onr Society and si- 
milar institutions existing at Manilla^ may bring 
to light much interesting information. Under 
exisiing circumstances^ it vvill natiirally occur^, 
that no time sbowld be lost ^n opening corres- 
pondence, and in encouraging the most unre- 
served and cordial coramunication. . 

Had I not already tresspassed too long on your 
time, I shouid have been inclined to indulge at 
some length on the prospect which the projected 
enterprize to Japan afFords in aid of our re- 
«earches in that quarter. From the distinguish^ 
cd talents of Dr. Ainslie, the English Secreta- 
ry to the S«)cietyj who proceeds as Commissioner 
on the part of the English Governraentj we 
have jast grounds for anticipating the acquisi- 
tion of mnch that is to be learnt from these re- 
mote and iaterestiug couatries. 



34 A ÖISCOURSE, &c. 

I must however now apologize for the very un- 
connected and diffuse marnier in wliich I have 
taken the libertj to address jou. The occasion 
required that I should saj somethijig, and I 
have alreadj stated how inadequate I feit mjself 
to say any thing tolhe piupose. I cannot, how- 
ever, conclude without offering to jou mj con- 
gratulations on the revival of the institution un- 
der its present proniising» circumsiances, nor 
without noticing the liheral manner in which 
JOU have undertaken the publication of a new 
Mdition of the Sacred Scriptiires in the Malaij- 
an charaeter. Allow me to. assure jou^ that I 
am individuallj deeplj interested in the success 
of the institution. aud that, while it mav be in 
mj power from mj*official situation, or other-* 
"vvise, io encourage and protect jour laudable 
pursuits and undertakings^ jou maj calculafe on 
the most unreserved and liberal support of Go* 
•vernment. 



CORRESPONDENCE' 

TO 

ff IS EXCELLENCE 

THE 

RIGHT HONQRABLE 

GIL BEKT a^OHD-MI-NTO, 

GOVERNOR GENERAL OF INDIA, &c. &c. &c. 

Mr LoRO, 
The Members of the liiteracv Society of Ba- 
tavia take i\ie liberty to ^ddreis themselves to 
}Our E5;ce]lencj, for the purpose of communi'i' 
cating a requ^st, which aUhough it may ia 
them appear sornewhat presumptuous, tbey are 
indiiced to hope will neverthelesa be granted 
by your Lordship • both on accoupt of the mo» 
tivea whiqh have prompted itj arid of the lau- 
dable objects v/hich your Lordship'a gracious 
eonlpliance is ealculatecl to promote. 

The Members of the Society are cönvinced 
that the ir endeavqyrs have hitherto been i;oo 
feeble, and the fruits of their laboür too triviale' 
tö flatter themsêlves wlth having merited any' 
particular attentioa frora your Excellency oo 

A 



U CORRESPONDENCE. 

those groiinds; but as the. nature and object of 
their institutión have been considered" worthy 
of the favourable notice of your Excellencj's 
representative on this Island, so much so, that 
the head of*the Government bras deigned to 
accept the nomination of Member and Pre- 
sident of the Society, they are encouraged to 
hope for ^the forgiveness of your Lordship, ïf 
after so , distinguished an addition to their 
Society^ they presume to look forvs^ard to a yet 
higher degree of honor and digoity; 

"It isj however, notalonethe desire of distinc* 
tion, althifugh that sentiment ever coincides 
with the principles of a Literary Society, that - 
gives rise to this address; be assured, my Lord,, 
that it is much more a sincere feeling of gra- 
titude and attachraent to the person an^ to the 
principles of your Exceliency, which on this 
occasion guides the conduct of our Society, 

Our minds are deeply impressed with the 
reüection, that at this moment the liberalafts 
of Pea , and the philanthropic exertions of 
Literature and Science^ are revived and flourish 
en the sanie spot, which but a few montbs 
p^st wa3-j4i£. tür.rilic sceae of war and des- 
truction. 



Allhongh tliere can be no limit to out sen* 
ttments of gratitude to that person from whoin 
those advatitages were immediately derivcd, 
still we nev^r ckn for2:et that it was (he wise, 
prudent, and happy choice of your BxC2l>^;^^y^ 
which left so bciievnl^;^ aüd so worthj a re- 
PT'^'éntative of jour Lordsbip among us. 

We consider the mild and pater nal adminis- 
tfation, the philaathropic and enlightened. 
Ti'ews óf your Ëxcellency's representative on 
this Island, as an emanation of your Lordship's 
6'wn principles and sentiments, and whifst we 
rejoice in thè splendor which surrounds us^jve" 
ckfariöt ré^rain fron^ lookiiiè up lo the sóurce 
frofn whenèé ifs fays 'proceed. 

ït is for these reasons, My Lord, that the 
Batavian Literary Society, considers itself 
bound in gratitude to vour Excellency, for all, 
the acts of kindness and protectipn, which it 
has so abundantly experienced fi.om the Honor- 
able the Lieutenant Governor of Java. ^ 

Reformed by hia genius and perseveranc€ — 
gaided by bis talents and example, re-esta* 
blished on its original and extensive founda- 
tions, and enriched by tÜe addition of a number 
of new aud valuable Mcrabers — the feociety 



flatters itseW' tbat a new life and vigour will 
soon pervade its wliole system, and that al-v 
thougli the old trunk stil! remains^ the graffing 
tljfereon of som'^ new branches, transplanted 
from a rich and fertile soil, will shorlly tend 
to produce k greater abundance of fruit and of 
finer qualitj than formerly. 

It is under these particular circtimstantje^ 
ttiat the Members of the Literarj Sdciety of. 
Batavia take the liberty to present this ad- 
dress to ypur Excellency, and to express their^ 
barnest entreaty, that ypur Excellency may be 
pleased to take their Society under your im» 
inediate care and protection, and at the same 
time to accept the title of *' Patron of the Lit- 
crary Society of Batavia '*— -a favor which they 
Sölicit your Excellency 'to ehhance^ by permit- 
ting thera to receive from their Agents either 
in Calcutta or in London, a bust of your Ex- 
Cèllency, to be placed in the Meeting Room 
in their nev^r Society-house now erecting at 
Ryswickc 

Your Lordship*s compHance with this their 
anxious wish will be considered b^ them as the 
most brilliant event recorded on the annals of 
the Batavian Society, aiid &s the most favour- 
able augury of their future literary pursuits ; 



CORRESPONDENTE. ▼ 

and althounjh the benefits which your Excel- 
lency has ccjiiferrcd on the Island of J^va^ are 
too eminent and have made too deep an im* 
pi'OHsion on the minds of its nuraerous inha* 
bi.tants ever to be efFaced from their memory, 
the Membeis of the Literary Society of Ba- _ 
tavia nevertheless hope that your Eicel lency"' 
W\\\ not refuse them the satisfaction of being 
cnabled to leave to their succes^ors a memorial 
of your Lordship^ which will prove in future 
years that they were not deficiënt in those sen- 
liments of grateful acknowledgtnent and res- 
pectfuKesteera which they owe to the person 
of your Lordship^ and with which they have 
the honor to remain, 

My Lord, 

Your Lofdship's most obedient^ obligedi 
and faithful Servants, 

fSigned hij all the Memhtrs of the Society,) 

Batavia, > 
April 24, 1813 \ 




JU 



'YISTE EXCELLENTIE 

Ql t Be Mt lorb mikt O- 

GOUVERNEUR GENBRAAL VAN INDIE,&c&c,&c. 



.»..»(S,®«..4.._. 



My Lor0^ 
De Leden van het Letter-ktindig Geöoot- 
scliap te Batavia^, nemen de vrjheid zich tot 
Uwe Excellentie te wenden en eene begeerte te 
kennen te geven^» die ofschoon iy ook eéoigzin^ 
vermetel moge schynen, echter, zoo zj hopen, 
door Uwe Excellentie in gunstige weiduiding 
zal worden' opgenomen, uit aanmerking zo wel 
van de dry f veren waar oit zy geboren wordt, 
als van de loffclyke oogmerken welke daar- 
door zouden kunnen bevorderd worden. 

Het Genootschap gevoelt dat hare pogingen 
iot hiertoe te zwak, en de vruchten van, haren 
arbeid te gering geweest zjn, dan dat zy zich 
zouden durven vleyen, van op grond van de- 
zelve, eenige byzoülere opi*»erking van de zyde 
van Uwe Excellentie te hebben verdiend ; dan 
daar niet te min de aard en strekking van haar 
instellingen, de gunstigste oplettendheid van 



Uvvö Excellenties vertegenwoordiger op iliit 
Eiland is waardig gekeurd, in zoo verre zelftf 
dat ht't Hoofd van het Bestier, zich niet heeft, 
onttrokken aan eene benoeming tot Lid eu 
Voorzitter van het Genootschap, zoo vleven 
zy zich. met de gunstige tOv^gevendheid var» 
Uwe Excellentie, indien zy, na zulk eene ver- 
meerdering van luister te hebben verkregen, 
hun oog nog op een hoogcr trap van ouder- 
scheiding durven vestigen. 

Het is echter niet slechts eers^erigheid, of- 
schoon eene eergierigheid in allen deele be*-"^ 
staaïibaar is met de beginselen vaneen Letter- 
kundig Genootschap, maar veelmeer een diep 
gejoel' van dankbaarheid en van verkleefdheid 
aftn «de Persoon eo aan de grondbeginselen van 
Uwé Excellentie; welke ter dezer gelegenheid 
de dryfveren van het Genootschap uitmaken. 

Zy kunnen niet zonder aandoening fiefdëri- 
ken, dat op dit oogenblik, de bedryven des 
Vredes en de raenschliev'ènde oefeningen van 
letterkunde en wetenschappen wederoai aan- 
gekweekt en verlevendigd worden, op die zelf- 
de plek, welke nog slechts weinige Maanden 
geleden het' schrikkelyk toneel vertoonde yaa 
Oorlog ea Verwoest;ing. 



-'^{©ftehoön zj geehe palen wensctien te sfel- 
Jen, aan de gevoelens van erkentenis verschul- 
digd aart die hand, van welke zj deze vóor- 
regten onmiddelyk mogen ontvangen,- zoo kun-") 
aen zy echter nimmer uit het oog verliezen/ 
dat het de wjze voorziening en de goede keus 
"Was van Uwe Excellentie^ welke deze welda» 
dige hand als een vertegenwordiger van XJw^ 
Persoon, in hu^n midden achterliet, 

Zy beschouwen het zacht en weldadig be^ 
stier, de menschlievende en verlichte inzichten 
van Uwe Excellenties vertegenwoordiger op 
dit Eiland, als een uitvloeisel van Uwe eigene 
beginselen en denkensaard ; en terwyl zy zich 
verheugen in het licht dat zich rond som hun 
verspreidt, kunnen zy niet nalaten tevens op te ^ 
zjen naarden oorsprong van waar bet tot hua 
afvloeit, 

Jïet is om deze redön;^ ^ly Lord, dat bet 
Bataviasche Genootschap zich tot dankbaar* 
beid aan Uwe Excellentie verbonden acht voor 
alle daden van bescherming welke zy in zuil; 
eene ruime mate van den Heere Ituitenant Gou- 
verneur van dit Eiland heeft mogen ontvangen. 

^ Herschept door zynen yver en werkdadig- 
liöid; geleid door zyne talenten en voorbeel- 



CCmRESPONDENTIE* 1»- 

den; hersteld op haren oorspronkelyken en rüU 
meren grondslag; en verrykt door de toevoe- 
ging van een aantal nieuwe en werkzame Le- 
den; vleit zich het G(Miootschap, dat zich 
weldra eeue nieuwe kracht en leven door haar 
geheel stelsel zal verspreiden, en dat ofschooa 
de oude Stam zy blyven staan, de enting op 
denzelven van eenige nieuwe takken, gelezen van 
eenen ryken en vruchtbaren bodem, binnen kort 
zal dienen om haar vruchten te doen voortbren- 
gen in meerderen overvloed en van eenen keuri- 
ger smaak, dan zy te voren pleeg af te werpen. 
Het is ouder deze byzondere omstandighe- 
den dat de Leden van het Letter-kundig Ge^. 
nootschap te Batavia, zich venneten d^^ze aaa 
Uwe Excellentie te rigten, en hunnen wjsnsch 
uit te drukken, dat het Hoogst denzelven moge 
l^ehagen, hun Genootschap onder desz^lfs by* 
Rondere zorg en b scherming op te nemen, en 
tevens te willen aanvaarden den titel van '' Pro- 
tector van het Letter- kundig Genootschap vari 
Batavia '\ Eene gunst welke zj Uwe Excel-, 
lentie verder verzoeken te willen volmaken, 
door hun toe te staan, dat zv dqör hunne 
Agenten, 't zy in Calcutta of in London, moeren 
erlangen een Borstbeeld van Uwe E^celJeptie^ 
f ersoon, om geplaatst te worden in hunne Ver- 

B 



1f- CORRËSÏ^ONÉENTÏE. 

gaderzaal in het nieiaw ontworpene Soeieteits- 

kuis by Rjswjk. 

ï>e voldoening van deze hutine wensctien 
Sullen zj beschouwen als het luisterrykste tyd- 
stlp in het bestaan van het Bataviasche Ge- 
nootschap, en als het gelukkigste teeken voor 
hunne toekoriistigf; Letterkundige betrachtin- 
gen; en ofschoon de weldaden door Uwe Ex- 
cellentie aan Java bewezen te uitstekend zja 
en een*" veel te diepen indruk op de geraoedersn 
van het Publi^^k gemaakt hebbén, dan dat zy 
immer uit het geheugen van de Inwoondereiï 
van dit Eiland zouden kunnen worden uitg-e- 
■wischt, zoo vertrouwen zy echter dat Uwe Ex- 
cellentie hun de genoegdoening niet zal ontzeg- 
gen, om een gedenkteeken aan hunne opvol- 
gers te kunnen overlaten *t welk ten bewyze 
strekt, dat zy niet zyn te kort geschoten in: 
die gevoelens van dankbare erkentenis en eer- 
biedige achting welke zy aan den Persoon van 
Uwe Excellentie verschuldigd waren, en met 
welke zy de eer hebben te verblyven, 

My Lord, 
Uwe Excellenties zeer onderdanige 
verpligte, en getrouwe Dienaren^ 
( Getekend' door alle de Leden van de Sockteil ) 

Batavia, > 

den 24ste April 1813.$- 



CÖTlRESPO'NIïENC«. ^ 

HIS LORDSHIP S REPLY, 



To 

The IlonoraUc Thomas Stamford Raf^ 
FLES, President of the Literart/ Societif 
of Batavia, 

Sm, 
I have had the honour of receiving yoiir 
letter of the 25th April, enclosing ari Address 
from the Merabers of the Xiterajrj Society of 
Batavia^ in which thej are plcased, in terms 
much too partial, but on that account highly 
gratifjing to ray mind, io offer me the dis* 
tinguished title of Patron of their learned 
Insütution. 

I reqnest you^ Sir, as President of the So- 
ciety, to convey my gratefiil acknowledgnients 
for this flattering mark of their csteem. It is 
doubtly acceptable, first/ as connecting my 
name with a body, eminent in Literature and 
Science, but most as associating me in pursuits 
beneiicial to a country^ my relations with 
which will ever be a subject of gratifying re- 
coUection, and whose improvement in know- 
ledge, reputation and welfare, I shall continue 
to cherish as objects of warm and paternal 
interest, long afte'r ï shall have lost in the 



ia rORRESPONDENCE. 

retirament of private life, the power óf being 
instr 11 mental in the^cuUivütion of those bles- 

sings^ 

The Society has enhanced their first favour 
by dösiring' that my bust may be placed a- 
mongst them, an honour to which^I ara the 
more seqsible as \t seems to bear with it a 
token of personal regard. — I shall with great 
pleasure take the proper steps after my ar» 
rival in Êngland, for giving effect to this fiat^ 
tering wish. 

I beg leavc to acknowlèdge the recèlpt of 
the printed transactions óf the Society^ which 
will hold an interesting place in my libraryj 
and serve to perpetnate in my family the re- 
collection of my connexion with Java^ and 
with those who adorn it with their liberal and 
ingenuous laboiirs. 

Perrait me to add the satisfaction with which 
I see myself joined, Sir, in the esteem of the 
Society, with your name, and to affix by this 
letter the signature of an absent brother, to the 
warm bilt jiist testimony borne by the Society, 
to the ardour, with which, in the raidst of 
many other public cares^ you have taken a 



CdRRESPONDENCE. .; 31111 

conspicuous lead in promoting the univcrsally 
iüteresting and useful pursuit of knowledge. 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, 
Your obcdicnt and faithful hunrïble Servant, 

MINTO. 



Aan 

Ben Hoog' Edelen Heer e Thomas Stam- 
FORD B AF FLES, Presidcnt van het Letter-^ 
kiiniig Genootschap te Batavia, ^ 

Hoogedel? Heer> i-z 

Ik heb de eer g;ehad te ontvangen UE: brief 
van den 23ste April, insluitende een Adres van 
de Leden van het Letter-kundig Genootschap 
Tan Batavia, waar in het hun behaagd heeft 
om my in veel te partjdige, maar om die reden 
toór my des te behaaglyker bewoordingen^ 
aéü gédistingueerden Titel van Protector vaii 
hun geleerd Genootschap aantebieden. 

Ik verzoek, ÜE : Mjn Heer, als President 
van die Sociëteit, om mynen erkenteljken dank 

te betuigen voor dit vlejend bewys hunner 

.n 

achtiiig. 

Hetzelve is dubbeld aannemeljk, ten eerste 
door mynen naam te verenigen met een Ge- 
nootschap, beroemd in Letter-kunde en We- 



SIV^ COÏIIIESPONDE^TIE. 

teiischappen^ en voorTxamecitijk door my eea 
deelgenoot te maken in onderzoekingen ten 
doel hebbende het geiiik van esn Land;, my* 
ne betrekkingen met welk immer een onderwerp 
Van de genoegeljkste herdenking yóof mj sullen 
zvn, en welks vorderingen in Wetenschap, 
Acinsien^ en Wel vaart/ ik bj voortduring zal 
waarderen als voorwerpen van een warm' en va* 
öerijk belang, 2elfs noch lang nadat ik in de 
eenzaamheid van een onbeambt leven de magt 
2al verloren liebben om een blykbaar deel te ne- 
mpn in het bevorderen van deze zegeningen. 

De Sociëteit heeft de waarde van haar eerste 
gunst vermeerderd door het verzoek dat mja 
Borstbeeld bj hen geplaatst mag worden, eene 
eer^ waaraan ik des te meer gevoelig ben, door 
dien dezelve een blyk van personeele achting 
schjnt te wezen, ik zal met groot genoegea 
«de behoorijke middelen in het werk stellen na 
myne aanliomst in Engeland, om dezen vlejendea 
wensch ten uitvoer te doen brengen, 

ïk heb het genoegen den ontvangst te 
melden van de gedrukte Verhandelingen der 
Sociëteit, welke eene belangrvke plaats in 
fciyWè' Bibliotheek zullen houden^ en strekkea 
om in myne familie de herinnering Vaa myné 



CORRESPONDENTIE. ir 

beiiekking met Java en met die genen die het 
met hunne edelnioedigen en opregten arbeid 
versieren, te vereeuwigen. 

Het zy my vergund om hierby bekend te 
stellen de voldoening waarmede ik my zelven, 
Myn Heer,, in de achting der Sociëteit met 
uwen naam vereenigd zie^ en door dezen brief 
de handteekening van een afwezigen broeder 
te stellen onder het warm maar opregt getuige- 
nis welk door de Sociëteit gegeven wordt, van 
den yver, waarmede UE : in het midden van 
vele andere publieke zorgen, een blykbaar dceï 
hebt genomen, in het bevorderen van de algemeen 
belangryke ea nuttige nasporing van Weten- 
schap. 

Ik heb de eer te zyn 

Hoogedele Heer ! 

UEr gehoorzame en getrouwe onderdanig© 

Dienaar, 

{geteekend) Mjyxo. 



VERHANDELINGEN ■ 

VAN HET 

BATAVIASCHE GENOOTSCHAP. 

I. 

AJSTTfFOORD Op de Vraag, voorgesteld door 
het Genootschap der Kunsten en Weten- 
schappen te Batavia, over het beste voed^ 
sel om nieuzv geboren Kinderen zonder 
Borst of Moedermelk op te voeden, onder 
de zinspreuk. Ego fa^eo^, me ex eorum 
numero q,s>s>q conari, qui proficiendo scri- 
bunt et scribendo proficiunt, aan den 
Schrijver van het welke de Eerprijs eener 
gouden Medaille is toegezvezen. 

Door CORNELIS TERNE, 

]^IED. DocT. Artis Obstetricïjb Lfxtor, Lid tan 

Veesc«tllende Geleerde Maatschapptjeiï, 

ÊN Stads-vqoedmeester te Letde». 

INLEIDING. 

Z^ELDZAAM is eene waardige Moeder in die 
drukkende omstanden, dat zy niet in staat is, om 
hare vrucht met hare borst en eigen Moeder- 
melk te drenken. — De wellust, cene kor^elheid, 
het gemak, vermaak, eene traagheid, of eene 
vergaande liefdeloosheid ea oaverschilligheid 

A 



^ BEANTWOORDING 

zijn meest ^1 de ware oorzaken, WJlafom men zij- 
ne tovlügt tot Minnen of andere voedselea 
jieemt om een Kind op te voeden^ 

Ik zal mij niet over de verpligting uiten, 
waarom Moeders gehouden zijn bare Kinderen 
.iïiet haren eigen boezem te voeden ; waar Natuuc 
-spreekt, heeft men door schitterenie redenen 
geene aanprikkeiing te geven. Natuur waar zij 
gij ? gij zijt immers in de verzengde lucht-streek 
niet gehee] verschroeit, ontaard en verbasterd ; 
en dus zullen 'er nog altoos brave Moeders in 
Indië gevonden worden, welke de inspraak det 
Natuur volgen, met haren eigen boezem trach- 
ten hare Kinderen te drenken, en ongeschikte 
Minnen van haar teeder kroost te verwijderen, of 
lïQg liever naar andere voedselen uitzien, dan 
hare Kinderen bloot te stellen aan die verschrik- 
kelijke en ijsselijke gebreken, waar mede de In- 
dische Minnen besmet zijn. — Yoeg hier bij, dat 
het niet alleen ligchaamlijke ongesteldheden zijn, 
welke de Kinderen afzuigen, en altoos mede te 
worstelen hebben, maar zij zuigen ook met de 
verbasterde Minnen-melk in, den aard en natuur 
Tan hare zedelijke gebreken. — Die zonderlinge 
jgemoeds neigingen, welke in de Minnen gevon- 
den worden, uit hoofde van haar geboorte-land., 
planten zij met de minnea-melk voort ; dus ziet 



DER P 11 IJ S V R A A a S 

men, dat Kinderen, welke van Malabaarsche of 
Ccilonsche Minnen gezoogd zijn, valseh vant 
aard zijn ; van Javaansche lui en traag ; van 
€ene Bouginesche listig, valseh en wreed; en 
van eene Tinioresche min gezoogd zijode, lui^ 
bijgeloovig. verradelijk en versaagd^ en daaren- 
boven alle zeer tot wellust genegen.— *• Het 
schijnt mij toe, dat de organische deelen en in* 
zonderheid die der hersenen door de eerste voe* 
ding of fijner of grover van zelfstandigheid 
kunnen worden, zoo dat de werkingen derzelve 
door middel der zenuwen, voor den geheeleiv 
leeftyJ, of gevoeliger of aandoenlijker worden>^ 
om de werkingen der ziel of nuttiger of onnut- 
ger te doen worden, en dat naar de eerste orga-p 
nizatie veeltijds de vermogens van het ligchaam 
en de ziel bepaald blijven voor toekomende tij- 
den. 

Van welk een aanbelang is het dqs niet, om 
met de Moeder-melk zijne Kinderen te laten in- 
zuigen, dien aard en natuur, welke men gaarn 
had, dat zijne Kinderen zouden bezitten, en dat 
in de Kinderen zoodanig eene goede organizatie 
plaats grijpe, als wij hun toewenschen om ze tij* 
del ijk en eeuwig gelukkig te maken ? wat strijdt 
derhalre meer tegen de natuur, dan zijne eerst 
geboren lunderen aan de zorg en borsten der 



é t" H A N T W o o R D I N tf 

slavinnen toe te vertrouwen, ja hunne ligchaams 
en zielverrnogens te vormen aan te bevelen ? Het 
is eene daad en handeivvijs, wanneer zij zonder 
booge noodzaaklijkbeid geschiedt^ welke noch ia 
natuur^ noch in een moederlijk hart, noch in de 
staatkunde vallen kan ; ja die een Souverein van 
2ijn huis, nimmer zonder kwetsing van zijn ge^ 
weten mag noch kan gedoogen, en door eene ver* 
standige staatkunde behoorde gebreideld en be- 
teugeld te worden. — De stichter der natuur heeft 
den mensch niet alleen geschikt om zijis gel jkea 
voorttebrengen, maar de zorg der opvoeding is 
hem ook aanbevolen. 

De vormer der natuar heeft der Vrouw niet 
alleen eene baarmoeder gegeven, om een Kind 
te ontvangen, bewaren en uit te persen, maar 
ook twee edeler werktuigen om het te voeden na 
de geboorte ; en zich zonder gewigtige redencK 
daar tegen te verzetten, is de heilige oogmerken 
der Goddelijke en wijze voorzienigheid te leuf 
te stellen; en alle de rampen, welke de Kinde- 
ren krijgen, door zoo een strafwaardig verzuim, 
zijn eenig en alleen aan die verdwaasde moeders 
toe te schrijven ; ja hare Kinderen hebben regt 
om haar te beschuldigen en te beklagen, zoo zij 
met gebreken worstelen, welke huu door eene 



DER P R IJ S V R A A G $i 

vreemde slavinnen-borst^ zijn ingelijfd en ingeeiit 
geworden. 

Het zoude m'j niet moeijelijk ziji\, wanneer ik 
door de velden der Gcneeskundii^en wilde reniien, 
óm eeneree!:s van ijsselijke gebreken aan te halen^ 
welke vreemde minnen de Kinderen aanzeilen;, die 
daar door als inaitelaars ellendig van de wereld 
gesloopt zijn en worden ! Men kan de daaglijk- 
sche bevinding raadplegen, en beroemde scbrij- 
Y(;rs als Ballctxer, Camper, Unser, Bikker, van 
Doeveren, van der Haarj en eeue menigte ande- 
ren daar over nazien. 

Genoeg voor ons, dat wij bewezen houden, 
dat de vorming van eene welgestelde ziel en lig- 
chaam veeltijds afhangen van het eerste voedsel, 
dat de Kinderen ingelept hebben, en hier om be- 
hoorde nimmer eene vreemde min geduld te wor- 
den, als do moeders zelve bekwaam waren, om 
eene goede borst en voedsel aan haar Kind te ^e- 
ven, en het ontbreekt zeldzaam de Bataviasche 
Moeders aan den tijd om zelve hare Kinderen 
te zuigen. 

Wij ontkennen evenwel niet, dat 'er soms o-e- 
breken zijn, welke het zog verbasteren, ontaar- 
den, of geheel beletten om door de klieven van 
de borst afgescheiden te worden^ en de brave 



è B E A N^ T W b o R D I N Ö^ 

Moeders buiteo staat gesteld zijn^ om baar teeder 
wicht met hare borst te voeden, of dat eeneziek- 
of zwakke] ij ke gesteldheid somtijds de beste 
Moeder de zuiging verpligt te staken, om zich 
zelve niet meer te ontkrachten, en een slecht zog 
nog daarenboven aan haar Kind te geven, die 
dus door kracht gedwongen wordt^ naar andere 
middelen uit te zien^. om haar Kind op te voeden. 

Laat de oorzaak zijn, welke men wil of ver^ 
kiest, de Moeders kunnen, of helaas zijn on- 
barmhartig genoeg, willen hare Kinderen zelve 
niet zuigen : en om de Kinderen van de treurige 
gevolgen der slaafsche minnen te bevrijden, ver- 
langt de Edele Konst en Wetenschap Jievende 
Maatschappij te Batavia, een beter en geschikter 
voedsel om de teedere wichten op te voeden, dat 
aan zoo eene schielijke ontaarding en bederving 
niet onderhevig was, en ook zulke wanorders ii^ 
de Kinderen niet te weegbragt, dan de gewone 
jnelk-pappen. 

Ik zal op de uitnoodiging der Edele Konst*^ 
minnende Maatschappij mij verstouten en onder-*' 
winden om naar den opgehangen lauwer fe 
dingen en stellig de voorschreven vraag met J4 
beantwoorden, en aantooncn, dat voor de Kin- 
deren op Batavia &c. een beter en nuttiger 
voedsel te vinden is^ dan de gewone melk-pappea. 



D E R P R IJ S V R A A G 7 

Mogten mijne pogingen nuttig zijn in een 
land, daar ik eertijds niet geheel onnut geweest 
ben ! Si desint vires, tarnen est laudanda 
VQjuntas, 

EERSTE AFDEELÏNG. 

Verwacht niet. Wel Edele en zeer geleerde 
Ileerea ! dat ik voor alle Kinderen in Oost-Indië 
een en het zelfde voedsel zal, kan^ mag^ of naoet 
Toorschrijven. 

Het is v^^aar, alle eerstgeboren Kinderen ver^ 
schillen zoo in temperament als anderzins zeer 
weinig van elkander ; edoch men zal mij nogtans 
gaarne toestemmen, dat het eene Kind zoo in als 
uiterlijk van gestel sterker of zwakker is, en dus 
zou een en het zelfde voedsel, somtijds het eene 
Kind kunnen voordeelig en het andere nadeelig 
kunnen zijn, inzonderheid, als men die twee 
Kinderen van zeer verschillende krachten ea 
sterkte een en het zelfde voedsel in eene gelijke 
hoeveelheid en menigte wilde toedienen ; ja 
schoon voor beide Kinderen een en hetzelfde 
voedsel nuttig was, zoo zou het voor het eene 
Kind schadelijk kunnen worden of zijn, als men 
het niet in eene minder hoeveelheid gaf, dewijl 
door zwakte de verterende kragten, niet genoeg 
ia staat waren om 'er eeu* goedea ea versterken- 



B 1g .B A N T W o o R B I N G 

éen clHjlns uit te bereiden, daarentegen zou eeis 
sterker Kind 'er wel door gevoed worden, eri 
zelh eeae ruimer quan titeit kuimea Boodig 

hebben. ■ ^^ 

Derhalve moet naar de verscbillende krach- 
ten vao den raaasr, darmen en het geheele lig» 
chaara, de hoeveelheid bepaald worden ; want de 
oestc voedselen worden schadelijk, als z^j door 
de natuur en ingewanden niet behoorlijk bereid 
en gekookt worden, om *er de versterkende en 
voedende deelen uit te zuigen ; Hippocrates 
tegt daar in lihro de locis zeer fraai : si 
torpus superat cihos ingestoSj floret, corro- 
loratur, hcne coïoratum efficitur et succulentnm^ 
sed si vincatur atque succumbat, ipsi quidem 
cihi per alvum secedunt et alia mala faciunt, 
corpus autem gracile redditur: derhalve naat 
mate de krachten zijn, moeten zelfs de beste 
voedselen bepaald worden. 

Zullen wij een beter voedsel voor de jonge 
JCinderen uitdenken, zoo zijn wij verpligt voor 
af te onderzoeken, welk een gebrek de gewone 
Melk-pap hreft, en welke wanorder dezelve in 
het ligchaam van het teeder wichtje veroorzaakt. 

Het algcmoene gebrek der gewone Melk-en, 
Brood-pap is, dat zij sppedig goor en auur 



DER PRIJSVRAAG • 

wordt, en dus reeds een voedsel geeft, dat over- 
helt tot die gebreken (ex defectu bilis) waar de 
jonge Kinderen het meeste voor vatbaar zijn. 

De Melk over het algemeen is op Batavia en 
in Oost-Lidiën slecht : De Melk gevende becstea 
grazen in de verzengde lucht-streek, op geene 
vette zoete klaver weide^ en de nuttige Koe loopt 
daar niet met dikke en gespannen uijers tot over 
den buik in het raalsche en voedzame gras, als 
in Holland; maar de Runderen hebben op ver- 
scheiden tijden van het jaar een schraal en ma- 
ger voedselp en dus zijn de dieren buiten staat 
om een goede en verkwikkelijke en regt-voeden- 
de Melk te geven. Deze zoo schraal voedende 
Melk met brood, meel, of beschuit gemengd, 
verstrekt laauv^ het Kind tot voedsel. 

Alle meel met melk gemengde spijzen, zijn al- 
toos geneigd om tot zuur overtegaan, en de 
v/armte van de lucht doet dezelve spoedig goor 
en zuur worden, welke verzuring nog versneld 
wordt door het menigvuldig opwarmen; met 
deze zoo spoedig zuur wordende pap, of welke 
al eenige goorheid heeft, vult men de Kinderea 
op, en naar mate dezelve meerder schreeuwen, 
propt men meerder in, en dus worden de teedere 
wichten, welker meeGte ziekte uit zuur voor-» 

E 



10 BEANTWOORI?IN(? 

komt, dag aan dag met een zuur voedsel ge- 
voed, welk vele toevallen te weeg brengt. Wel- 
ke wanorders nu door dit voedsel veroorzaakt 
worden, leert de dageÜjksche bevinding, en i?o- 
scn van Easensiein zegt met regt, alle de ziekten 
der Kinderen komen uit zuur voort : sommige 
Kinderen krijgen stuipen, andere worden door 
krampachtige buikpijnen gemarteld^ of dooi* 
geweldige buiks ontlastingen geteisterd, welke 
door het geweldig zuur de billen en teeldeelen 
ontvellen; eindelijk verdikt de buik, de lever en 
milt, de darmscheils vaten en klieren verstoppen^ 
waar door een langdurige kwijning veroorzaakt 
wordt ; de Kinderen worden hongeriger, en hoe 
meer men hun te eten geeft, hoe meer men de 
kwaal en toevallen vermeerdert, eindelijk teren 
de Kinderen als geraamten uit door de verzwak- 
kende buikloopen^, en sterven als een offer der 
onkunde en moeders %.riiligheden, door het ont- 
houden van hare borsten of bekwamer voedsel. — • 

Hoe schadelijk ook de melk-pappen zijn en 
lioe sterk sedert een geruim getal jaren, de Ge- 
neeskundigen zich tegen die spijzen verzet heb- 
ben, zoo hebben zij doch bij de bekoorlijke sekse 
weinig of niets kunnen uitwerken, en wij moeten 
bekennen, dat alle voorstellingen, welke met de 
leeiiug onzer ^rootmoederen strijdt, ccuen mag- 



DER PRIJSVRAAÖ 11 

tigefi tei^enstand vindt bij onze vrouwtjess ; 
evenwel kan de herhaling nuttig zijn^ w^ant Gut- 
ta cavat lapiclem, non vi, sed scepe cadendo, of 
b^t eindelijk ingang mogte vinden. 

Dewijl na moeders niet kunnen, of niet wil- 
len, of ten minste weigeren hare Kinderen met 
haren eigen boezem te voeden, en de slaafsche 
minnen aan zoodanige gebreken onderworpen 
zijn, dat het onveilig is haar te gebruiken, en wij 
gezien hebben, dat de gewone melk-pappen 
spoedig ontaarden en bederven, en een slcclit 
voedsel geeven en ten tweede zeer spoedig eea 
bijtend zuur in de ingewanden te weeg brengen, 
waar door een heirleger van ziekten aan die 
teedere wichJ33 te weeg gebragt v/ordt, zoo zijn 
wij verpligt zoodanig een voedsel of pap te be- 
reiden, welke die ontaarding zoo spoedig niet 
ondergaat, en zoo een bijtend zuur niet veroor- 
zaakt, en daar door eene reeks van ongemakkea 
en den dood zei ven trachten afte wenden, 

TWEEDE AFDEELING. 

Ons bestek gaat niet verder met de opvoeding 
der Kinderen, als tot zij in staat zijn om de ge-^ 
wone voedselen mede te kunnen gebruiken, en. 
dat is, tot zij tanden en kiezen bebbea cm de 



13 BEANTWOORDING 

spijzpn te kunnen vermalen, ten onder te brengen, 
en dns bij na half verteerd naar den nnaag en 
verder ingewanden ter bereiding te zenden ; 
zeldzaam «i^aat onze bestiering dus langer, als 
tot dat de Kinderen één jaar oud zijn. 

Het u de pb'[;t van eene moeder zelve bare 
Kinderen gade te slaan, en 'er is voor een Kind 
geen grooter geluk; dan door eene bekwame 
Moeder zelve opgevoed te worden, is liet niet 
met de borst, dan gewis met voedsel, dat het 
Kind noodig heeft ; ten rninste behoort de ver- 
standige Huismoeder 'er bij tegenwoordig te zijn, 
als haar Kind gereinigd en gevoed wordt ; want 
zulks aan de slavinnen alleenig aan te vertrou- 
wen, is £:eheel en al zijn' moederlijken pligt te 
verv^aarloozen ; zelfs behoorden de moeders, 
700 veel doenlijk is, het oog op de Kinderkamer 
te hebben, en de gvheele behandeling der Kinde- 
ren na te gaan ; want ons is bekend, dat som- 
mige slavinnen, door de Kinderen te mishande- 
len en aan den navel te trekken, dezelve trachten 
om te brengen ; ook zijn de bezigheden der In- 
dische Vrouwen, zoo groot niet, dat deze pligt 
Tan haar niet zoude te vergen zijn, vermits de 
welvaart van de Kinderen daar van kan afhan- 
gen, en dienstboden en slavinnen zijn altoos 
vreemden^ daar de eigen natuur aan ontbreekt. 



DER PRIJSTRAAG 13 

Zoo dra het Kind geboren is, verdient het 
onze opmerkinsr : wij gaan stilzwiJ2:ende voor- 
bij, wat voor. in, en onder de verfossing van eene 
Vrouw te betrachten is, als mede alle die baga- 
tellen, welke de Indische Vroed-vrouwen bij de 
geboorte van een Kind in gebruik hebben^ en 
voeren maar aan die middelen, welke eenig en 
alleen noodig zijn, zullen Kinderen wel en ge- 
zond kunnen opgevoed worden.— De navelstreng 
Oioet met eencn dubbelden Katoenen draad af^ 
gebonden, en met eene scherpe schaar, twee vin- 
geren breed van den buik, afgesjneden wordeo^ 
en met geen mes, gelijk sommige Indische Vroed- 
vrouwen in gebruik hebben. — Langer cf korter 
moet de streng niet afgesneden worden, niet laur 
ger, om de beierving niet te groot te maken, en 
piet korter, om des noods nog één bindsel te kun- 
nen leggen Zoo dra de navelstreng afgesneden 
is, moet het Kind aan eene helpster overgegeven 
worden, en de Vroed-vrouw verlost ter regter 
tijd, wanneer de baarmoeder zich zamentrekt, de 
Vrouw van de nageboorte, en verzorgt haar be- 
loorlijk met een breeden sluit- band te bedde. 

Men zorgt, dat het Kind, dan zuiver en rein 
gewasschen en van alle smeer gezuiverd worJe, 
inzondt rheid onder de armen, nek, billen en lies3n, 
op dat de uitwaseming niet gecohibecrd wx^rde. 



14 BEANTWOORDING 

om dus de gezondheid te bevorderen^ en eene Ias« 
tige ont veiling en uitslag voor te komen. Daar 
Ra moet men den navel verzorgen, vele Kinderen 
sterven voor den negenden dag in beete landea 
aan de zoogenoemde klem in den mond; misschien 
geeti de verrotting van 't bloed tasschen de bin- 
ding en den buik daartoe gelegenheid ; de be- 
roemde van der Haar schijnt mede tot dat ge- 
voelen over te hellen, waarom men dit bloed uit* 
drukt voor de binding. 

De navelstreng dient men op deze mijne gewo- 
ne wijze te verborgen : Men neemt een vierkant 
zacht lapje katoen of linnen van eene halve hand 
groot^ en snijdt in het midden een gaatje zoo 
groot, dat de navelstreng er door kan tot aan den 
buik, en in dat drooge doekje windt men den na- 
velj en daar over een klein driik-compres en na- 
vel-band. Het is nadeelig, en vooral in heete 
landen, de streng met olie te smeren, beter is het^ 
dat men dagelvks het druk-compres *er afneemt, 
en dan het ander doekje nat maakt met half arak 
en water, of brandewjn en water, of dat nog be- 
ter is met witten wijn ; daar door voorkomt meni 
de schadelijke uitwerking van de verrotting der 
Kavel-streng. *• 

Wanneer de navel-streng zeer dun is en voor 
den derden dag afvalt, sterven gemeenelijk de 



DER P R Ijr S V R A A Ö ' Ij 

Kinderen binnen lé dagen, gelijk de ondervin- 
ding mij en anderen geleerd heeft. 

Zeldzaam hebben Kinderen van gezonde ou- 
ders geboren aanstonds voedsel noodig; en eea 
Kind, welk men zonder borst wil opvoeden, 
moet men binnen 24 uren ^een voedsel geven. 
De bangheid is ijdel, dat een Kind binnen 24 en. 
meerder uren van gebrek aan voedsel zou sterven ; 
veel eerder loopt het gevaar door het te vroeg 
eten te geven, dan te laat. De slijm uit den 
mond en maag^ en de zwarte drek uit de dar^nca 
moet eerst ontlast zijn, eer men het Kind behoort 
te voeden, zie hier over Ballaxer Pag: 100^ ai 
mede Rosen van Rosenstein, Cainper 8^c. 

D-s eerste Moeder- melk is een heilzaam vocht 
om die slijmen drek te ontlasten. 

Door de werkende kracht der Natuur wordt 
meesten tijd zonder voedsel de slijm en zwarte 
drek ontlast; is die daar in nalatig' of ti*aa,9', dan 
kan men door een weinig rabarber het zelve 
verkrijgen of begunstigen ; een weinig spaansche 
zeep doet hier ook goede uitwerking. 

Naa dat de eerste wegen behoorlijk zijn ge^' 
zuiverd, krijgt het Kind honger, en dan moet 
men het voedsel toedienen en geven. 

EenjoDgof nieuw geboren Kind is uu zv.er 



If". 



iÖ BEANTWOORDING 

onverscliillig in 't aannemen van voedsel, men 
kan het gewennen aan alle voedselen, vv^elke gee- 
ne prikkelende scherpheid hehben. Eene dunne 
papj toebereid van enkel gekookt hartshoorn-wa^ 
ter, met wel gegeste eo tweemalen gebak kfn be- 
schuit van best blommeel, is in de eerste acht^ 
tien^ twaalf, veertien of meerder dagen een aU 
lernultigstj heilzaam en genoeg versterkend voed- 
sel, mits het behoorlijk bereid en gegeven wordt. 
Men bereidt het hartshoorn- water op deze wij- 
ze: men oeemt een vierendeel geraspte of gesne- 
den hartshoorn, en kookt die in eene toegesloten 
pan, met vier flessen water, en laat het verkoken 
tot op twee flessen, welke men bewaart op een 
koele plaats, men giet op de beschuit zoo veel, 
als in eenen keer het Kind tot voedsel noodig 
heeft, warmt het in een porseleine of andere aar- 
de pan, geeft 'er het Kind van zoo veel noodig is. 
li 't bijzijn van de moeder of onder hare oogen 
mact het Kind gevoed worden, om de drie of 
vier uren, niet eerder, op dat het voedsel behoor- 
lijk kan verteren, en niet langer met voeden wach- 
ten, op dat het Kind niet opgeblazen of opgezet 
worde door te veel voedsel te gelijk iegeyen. 
Een' algem^^enen regel moet men houden, dat, als 
de Kinderen slapen, men ze nimmer om het eten 
wakker make ; in den nacht racet men zoo veel 



DERPRYS VRAAG IT 

Termijden als doenlijk is om het Kind eten te ge- 
ven^ en dus *s avonds het een weinig meerder ge- 
ven, om dus den nacht zonder voeden door 
te brengen. Alle land-dieren en vogelen etea 
's nachts niet; en het is maar een misbruik 'er de 
Kinderen aan te wennen. 

Eer men het Kind voedt, moet men het opne- 
men en op den arm eenigen tijd om dragen, ea 
zachtjes bewegen, losgemaakt zjnde den buik 
wrijven, en dan te eten geven. 

Men moét de overgeschoten pap liever weg 
doen, ten minste niet te veel te gelijk maken, op 
dat zij door het dikwils opwarmen niet ontaarde 
en bederve. Misschien is men beducht, dat ia 
deze pap geen genoegzaam voedsel is om het 
Kind te doen groeijen en in krachten aan te ne- 
men ; ijdele vrees ! menigvuldige malen heb ik 
met deze pap zeer vele Kinderen zeer goed zien 
opgroeijen, en daar onder verscheiden een half 
jaar lang, zonder van zuur of andere ongemak- 
ken gekweld te worden ; daarenboven hebben de 
Kinderen van gezonde ouders geboren in de eerste 
weken geen sterker voedsel nood ig, dewijl ze ia 
zich zelven nog voedende vochten genoeg hebben, 
welke maar eenige versterking en ondersteuning 
van noode hebben^ en dewijl 'er ia de maag en 

C 



18 BEANTWOORD! HG 

darmen en op de mondjes der melk-vaten^ nog 
«veel slijm zit, zoo moet het eerste voedsel zoo» 
danig ingerigt zijn, dat het die slijmstoiFe af- 
spoelt, en genoegzaam in staat is om opgeslurpt 
^e kunnen worden ; want het geen opgenomen 
wordt d >or de vasa absorbentia, voedt, en niet 
dat naar de dikke darmen vervoerd wordt. 

Nu is *er ^een afvagender vocht^ dan harts- 
hoorn-water^ inzonderheid^ als het met verster- 
kend brood gemengd wordt, om de krachten te 
onderbonden^ en te doen aannemen; welk een* 
dienst hebben wij niet voor zwakke menschen 
van het Decoct : Aib : Sjdenhami, dat enkel uit 
hartshooni-vocht, brood en honig of suiker be- 
staat; en wij kunnen ook zonder schade een wei- 
nig honig of suiker bij de pap mengen ; het voor- 
oordeel dat de suiker en honig aan de Kinderen 
schadelijk is^ steunt op zwakke gronden ; men 
heeft maar te zorgen, dat men *er geen misbruik 
van make en te veel geve — Deze hartshoorn-wa-» 
ter en beschuit-pap, heeft dat gebrek niet, welk 
men in de melk-pappen aantreft ; voor eerst 
wordt bet hartshoorn- water zoo binnen als bui- 
ten het ligxhaam van 't Kind niet zuur of goor als 
de Melk ; maar kan, als het op eene koele plaats 
bewaard wordt, eenige dagen voor bederving 
bewaard worden ; en als het dan ontaardt, neemt 



DER PRYSVRAAG 19 

het eene zekere bederving aan, welke het zuur 
voorkomt en geneest; het is ook bekend^ dat alle 
voedselen uit het diercn-rijk nuttig zijn om liet 
zuur voor te komen, waarom de Geneesheeren om 
't zuur te genezen, voedselen uit het dieren-rijk 
voorschrijven, ook spaansche zeep en alcali zou- 
ten aanprijzen. Ten tweede is deze p4p spoedig 
gereed te maken ; en ten derde ontlasten de Kin- 
deren 'er zeer gemakkelijk van, blijven bevrijd 
van het bijtend zuur in de ingewanden, en krim- 
pingen in de darmen en van de lastige en ver- 
zwakkende diarrhee. Eindelijk heeft de onder- 
vinding mij en anderen geleerd, dat de Kinderen 
zeer wel groeijen, sterk worden en rustig slapen. 
De alom beroemde Hoogleeraar Caïiiper, 
zegt in de Haarlemscbe Maatschappij D. Vil. 
Pag 403. 

^, Mijne eigen Kinderen heb ik m-^f de volgen» 
„ de pap laten voeden, waar bij zij zeer wel s^e- 
,, varen zijn; even wel schrijf ik hunne sterkte 
j, ook veel toe aan het goed gestel, waar mede 
„ zij geboren zyn. Dit kan ik echter getuigen, 
„ dat zij zeer zeldzaam, methet zuur geplaagd ge- 
,, weestzyn. Neem dan (vervolgt zijn Ed. ) .^e 
„ beste twee-bakken van tarwe-meel, kook die in 
„ een aarde pot met regen- water^ roer dezelve met 
,, eeu houten lepei tot ecne dikke pap, en zet die 



20 BEANTWOORDING 

S3 dan ten gebruike weg; deze kan men eenen, 
^y dag, ook wel twee dagen bewaren^ indien de 
5, lucht niet te heet is. Zet daar van eene ge- 
33 noegzame veelheid op het vimr^ doe 'er een 
^3 weinig spaansche zeep toe^ en verdrijf de bit- 
S3 terheid met suiker^, giet 'er vervolgens zoo veel 
^3 koude zuivere koemelk bj% als noodig is^, ora 
S3 opgeslurpt te kunnen worden. Indien deze 
S3 pap eens gewarmd zijnde niet geheel gebruikt 
5, wordt, moet dezelve wég gedaan worden, om 
33 dat tweemaal opgewarmde pap in den maag 
33 der Kinderen eerder goor wordt/' 

Deeze pap door mijnen grooten meester Cam- 
per aangeprezen heb ik hooderde malen in Euro. 
pa met de beste gevolgen zien gebruiken; doch 
dewijl in Qost- Indien dé melk schraal ea slecht 
is, en door de heete lucht spoedig verzuurt, kun- 
pen wj aldaar de melk zeer wel missen; de pap 
van hartshoorn-water bereid, waarmede ik me- 
nigvuldige Kinderen heb zien opvoeden, is zoo 
versterkende en voedende, als die pap van Pro- 
fessor Camper; voor eene menigte Kinderen zoo 
wel als mijne eigene heb ik geen ander voedsel noo- 
dig gehad, tot dat zy in staat wtireii om andere 
spijzen mede te gebruiken. — • 

Wanneer nogtans Kinderen toonen, dat zij 
meerder voedsel begeeren, of sterker voedende 



DER PRIJSVRAAG 21 

jpij'/on noodfü: liebben, moet men daaglijks oiuler 
deze pap een of twee dojers van eijeren menge'.j • 
ook kan men zoodanige Kinderen daaglijks of om 
den anderen d^^ een dojer van een ei met of zon- 
der een korrel zout, dat zeer versch en zacht ge- 
kookt is, te eten <reven. De beroemde van der 
Haar beeft u\ de Algemeene Yaderlandscbe let- 
ter-oefTeiiing IV deel, bladz. 30i &c. een klein 
stukje gegeven over bet beste voedsel der Kinde- 
ren buiten de moeder-melk, en die nog nuttige 76 
jarige grijsaard, schreef mij nog onlangs, dat hij 
DOg geloofde^ dat het, het beste voedsel was, 
zelfs in heete landen. 

Die beroemde man door csne lans-du ri^ce on- 
der vinding gesterkt, prijst zeer aan twee loot 
kalfs-vleesch gekookt in een bottel water, met 
beschuit of korsten van ^vel gcgest oudbakken 
brood, somtijds met of zonder een dojer van een 
ei, als het beste voedsel voor Kinderen ; en ik ge- 
loof niet alleen, maar ben door ondervinding ver- 
zekerd, dat zoodanig eene niet te dikke pap, voor 
Kinderen nuttig is, welke meerder voedsel noo- 
dig hebben, en reeds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, of meerder 
maanden oud zijn. Men kan in Oo3t-ïndiën, 
dewijl het kalf-vleesch zoo verkrijgbaar en goed 
niet is, nemen twee lood hoender^of kapoenen 
vleesch en een half lood vogelnesjes gekookt op 



BEANTWOORDING 

eene bottel water, en nemen, na het wel gekookt 
is, het vleesch 'er uit, en dikken de soep aan met 
gestampte beschuit, het welk voor de kinderen ia 
-t algemeen eerï zeer goed voedsel is; en m 't dit 
voedsel zullen de kinderen groeijen en sterk wor- 
den ; Ja men kan hen daar mede voeden tot een 
jaar en meer toe, mits men de hoeveelheid van 't 
vleesch iets vermeerdert, en zomtijds een zacht 
gekookt eijer-dojer en een klein boterhammetje 
tusschen beide geeft; en zjn de kinderen dorstig, 
kan men hen gerust een glasje water en melk, of 
melk met selserwater te drinken geven ; die wei- 
nige melk zal de kinderen geene schade toebren- 
gen, te meer dewijl 'er weinig vrees voor zuur is 
onder het gebruik van die versterkende en het 
zuur tegenstaande voedselen. 

Men kan ook in plaats van beschuit somtijds 
sago meel nemen, om onder het voornoemde 
\leeschnat of onder het hartshoorn water te men- 
gen, merk nogtans aan, dat men, zoo veel doen- 
lijk is, ongegeste meel spijzen vermijde, hoewel ik 
menigmalende sago voor kinderen toegediend heb, 
en zeer wel 'er de kinderen bij bevonden heb. 

Uit deze mijne verhandeling blij kt dus genoeg- 
zaam, dat wil men gelukkiger zijne kinderen op- 
voeden, men de voedselen moet zoeken voor kin- 
deren in 't dieicmijk: hoender-en kapoenen-nat. 



DER P R IJ S V R A A G 83 

ka1^svlep<;cli-nat en dunne soep van bnffelvlecsch, 
zijn met wel gesrest brood of beschuit als de beste 
voedselen voor de kinderen aan te merken, inzon* 
dc^rheid, als men *er somtijds een of meerder 
dojers van eijers ondermengt, en nu en diin tus- 
schen beide de kinderen een zacht gekookt eijer 
dojer te eten geeft. 

Naar mate nu de kinderen ouder worden, dient 
men ook de hoeveelheid ie vermeerderen, en zoo 
fpoedig doenlijk is, nu en dan andere voedselen 
mede te eten, geven ; ik twijfel niet, of men zal in 
strtat zijn, om met deze voorgestelde wijze van 
voeden, als *er tevens eene goede bestiering plaats 
heeft, met de kinderen gelukkiger te slagen. 

De rijst-bier-wijn-en water- pappen zij inOost- 
Indiën ondienstig. De rijst geeft de Kinderen te 
weinig voedsel en vult te sterk op ; het Vader- 
landsche bier fermenteert altoos, en is veel te geest- 
rijk om voor voe3el te gebruiken, want een vocht^ 
dat een jaar in de vaten gelegen heeft, de heete 
keerkringen gepasseerd is, is een ongeschikt vocht 
voor kinderen ; niemand, die een aas gezond ver- 
stand heeft, zal zulks anprijzen, en wien is in 
Oost- Indien onbekend, welke hevige beroeringen 
door het bier in bejaarde menschen te weeg ge- 
bragt worden. Over de wijn en water-pappen 
kan ik geen gunstiger oordeel vellen^ en ben ver- 



94 B E A N T W o o R D ï N G 

zekerd, dat men dezelve allen missen kan^, als men 
sijne toevlugt neemt tot voedselen uit het dieren 
rijk — Van zelfs nogtans blijkt, dat de verstandi- 
ge Huismoeder behoort aeht te geven, dat haar 
Kind niet te veel noch te weinig toegediend wor- 
êe, en de overige bestiering behoorlijk zij. 
Ook behoort men acht te geven, of het Kind da« 
gelijks genoegzame ontlasting heeft. Te vee! 
verzwakt, te weinig ontrust en benaauwt de Kin* 
deren. Zoo geene genoegzame ontlasting plaats 
beeft^ kan men het Kind met een pisang of pieter- 
selie stccUje in olij gedoopt, of met eea zet-pil 
van spaansche zeep in den anus prikkelen. 

Inzonderheid is xulks nuttig 's morgens, als 
men eerst het Kind gevoed en geene ontlasting 
gehad heeft. Men moet van jongst op de Kin- 
deren gewennen op eenen vasten tijd aftegaan, 
en indien men daav moeiten toe doet, kan men de 
Kinderen en ook ouder menschen bevrijden van 
hardlijvigheid. Het is de moeite waardig hier 
over na te zien Locke, over de opvoeding der 
Kinderen lüaclz. 38, 39 &c. Zeldzaam moet 
men tot medicijnen overgaan, doch als het de 
nood vereischt, is de rabarber en deszelfs sijroop 
het eenigstc en heilzaamste middel om de ontlas- 
ting te bevorderen, vermits de rabarber onder 
alle ontlast- middelen het ecnigste darm verster- 
kend is.' — 



D E R P R IJ S V R A A ö 25 

Is de ontlasting te vee], en te dun, en van ^t 
^uur voortkomende,, kan men in een' dojer van 
een ei drie of vier grein sal tertari mengen met 
een weinig suiker, en somtijds "er wat van inge- 
ven, öf wat spaahsche seep onder de pap mengen. 
Ook kan men van de zuur opslurpende poeders 
nut hebben, inzonderheid als een weinig rabar- 
bcr te voren gegeven is, als van de J\Iignes, Alh, 
Coral. Rubr. pulv, Corn. Cerv. Ust: en inzon- 
derheid wanneer *er geweldige krimpingen plaats 
hebben, behaagt mij een drankje van venkel-wa- 
ter, krijten sijr. diacodii, waar van men somtijds 
een' lepel kan in geven. 

Hier mede zal ik deze besluiten onder toewen- 
scbing van 's Hemels zegen over Uwel Ecle. en 
zeer geleerde'Heeren, en eenen langdurigen bloei 
en welvaart van 't Bataviasche Genootschap, 

Ik heb getracht kort te zijn, en ben nog in vele 
zaken lang geweest^ doch hoop niet onnut, ten 
minste vlei ik 'er mij mede^ en bedien mij van de 
zinspreuk: 

Ego fateoVj me ex eorum numero esse cona- 
rij Qui projlciendo scribunt, et scribendo pro-- 
jiciunt, 

AuGusTiNj Epist. 143. 



IL 



BERIGT wegens de zeden en gewoonten der 
Opgezetenen van den Berg BRAMA e?t 
hy gelegen Volken op het Eiland JA VA .ge- 
trokken uit een' hrief van den Heer ADR T-' 
AAJsr VAM RTCK, Commandant van 
Passou rouang aan zvylen den Heer HOOT- 
MAJST, geschreven den 26 Mei 1785. (*) 



j?e tegenwoordige Bewoners van den Berg 
Brama moeten onder de gewone Mahometanen 
gerekend worden; voor het uitwendige alilians 
ef!rbiedi:a:en zij derzelver wet, dan zijn op verre 
iia zoo Godsdienstig niet, als de Westersche of 
Noordsche Strand-volken ; hunne onaclitzaam- 
lieid gaat zelfs zoo ver, dat, schroomden ze niet 
de verachting van de andere Javanen, zij zich mo- 
gelijk niet eens zouden laten besnijden, en nog 
minder de Mahometaansche Huwelijks-en Be- 
gravenis-plegtigheden in acht nemen: Nu doen 
ze het om vorige reden, en zijn 'er toe verpligt^ 

(*) Deze brief diende ten antwoord op eenen van den Heer Jlooijman, 
■waar in zijn Eerw: meencnde, dat nog eeue soort van Volk daar zoo 
■woest 'wa';, dat niet lang geleden 'er een mensch geofferd ware, daar om* 
trent van den Heer van lïijck, eenig narigt verzocht iiad. 

D 



2 OVER DE VOLKEREir 

om dat SS allen onder de Regentschappen van 
Passoiiroimng en Frobolingo staan, en dus ook 
der Cornpagüie hulde doende^zoo wel als andere 
Inlanders, hunne Lands- wetten onderhevig zijn. 

Het vertelsel, dat ze riet lang geleden een' 
mensch zouden gecoverd hebben, komt derhalve 
vreemd voor : na een naauwkeurig onderzoek 
heeft men 'er niets van kunnen ontdekken. 

Veelligt spruit het voort uit het fabelachtig 
verhaal der oudsten dier Berg- volken van hunne 
aloude afkomst, welk, gelijk als de andere Ja- 
vaansebe Historiën, gebrekkig, duister en vo! 
versiering, echter met %^ele moeite in afschrift 
gezocht, eindelijk verkregen^ en bier achter ge- 
geplaatst is. 

Alle die Berg- volken daar omstreeks zijn ia 
hunne gewoonten en zeden bijna gelijk aan de 
andere Javanen, die in de laagten en aan de 
Noorder stranden wonen ; schoon dommer in vele 
zakeij dnn deze, zijn ze daar en tegen veel opreg- 
ter en minder ijverzuchtig en moorddadig. Bij 
eene dertien-j arige ondervinding vernam men 
onder hen noch moord of diefstal. 

De Polygamie, die oorzaak van zoo vele on- 
heilen op Java, vindt 200 min als hoererij on- 
der hen plaats, 

Humie \errcgaaiide blindheid en bütroloüf 



VANDEN E E R G H R A II A Ö 

tan, ten voorbeelde, daar uit blijken^ dat ce 
op dca geheelen Brama en de aangrenzende 
Tingerscke en Tjierlscke Gebergten geen e Pa- 
die zullen planten, en zelfs geene rijst 'uit de 
Padie stampen;, in de gedachte, dat ze daar doof 
aan hun land en personen het grootst onheil 
zouden veroorzaken.» Hoe min halsterrig' an- 
ders en gemakkelijk te bestieren, zijn ze op 
geenerlei wijs van dit denkbeeld af te brengen. 

Hun gewone arbeid is de Land-bouw, ^\e 
meest bestaat in hei planten van rood e en witte 
Uijen, Jarak-pitten tot olie, en Mais of zoo- 
genoemde Jagons. Met beide eerste artikels 
drijven zy handel aan de Stranden, terwijl het 
laatst gemelde hun tot daaglijksch voedsel 
strekt. Sommigen vermengen het zelve met 
wat rijst, die ze in de laagte wit gestampt zijn- 
de^ benevens hun zout, bladjan^ klappus olie, 
potten en andere benoodigbeden komen koopen, 
of tegen hunne voortbrengsels inruilen. 

Hunne w'oni«2:cn verschillen veel van die der 
Wcstersche Javanen, zijnde geheel langwerpig/ 
doorgaans van 60 tot 80 voeten lang, en van 
16 tot 20 breed, ror.dom met planken uit ge- 
meen boschhout gekapt bezet, van binnen met 
bamboezen matten beschoten, en van buiten met 
grond of liever gras-zoden belegd, en met bam- 
boezen of zocgcaoeiüde klakas gedekt: é.Gi^ 



é OVER BE VOLKEREN 

dubbelde beschieting; hnnner huiswanden j^e- 
scbiedt tegen den dooriogt der aldaar scherp 
Waaijende winden. 

In zoo een huis, waar gewoonlijk drie of vier 
familien wonen, zjn aan het eene einde slaap- 
plaatzen twee aan twee over malkanderen ge- 
plaatst; de Yuurstedcn, van welke het vuur dag 
of nacht niet afwezig is, zijn tusschen beide; 
daar door beschermen zij zich tegen de koude, 
die op alle die gebergten aanmerkelijk is. 

Door dit gestadig vuurstoken vindt men in 
die huizen meesttijds zoo veel rook, dat een Eu- 
ropees het 'er naauwlijks kan uithouden ; hea 
verveelt het niet door de gewoonte; zij weten 
'er dit nuttig gebruik va»j te maken, dat ze eerst 
gedolven Uijen en versch gesneden Jagons op 
zolders, die van bamboezen gemaakt zich in- 
wendig over het geheel huis uitstrekken, droe- 
gen en voor bederf hev^aren. 

Sij de besnijdenis hunner kinderen, nemen* 
ze, een ieder naar vermogen, dezelfde ceremo- 
niën en gebruiken in acht, als alle andere Ja- 
vanen, bedienende zich daar toe van Priesters vaa 
de naast aan het gebergte gelegen Negerijen. 

Bij het aangaan van een Huwelijk, welk bij 
ten ook ia zoc vroege jeugd niet geschiedt. 



VAN DEN BERG B R A M A 5 

als bij de Westersclie Strand- Ja vanen of aan 
de iloven der Vorsten^ komt de Manspersoon 
af, om bij den Regent de vereiscbte licentie 
te verzoeken ; Deze met bet daar toe beboo- 
rcnde bevi^ijs verkregen bebbende, gaat we^.^er 
naar boven, en meldt het zijne en de Ouders 
of Vrienden van de aanslaande Bruid, óie bij 
'er tevens van kennis geeft. De dag besloten 
zijnde om het Huwelijk te voltrekken, komt 
de Bruidegom verzeld van zijne en der Bruids 
ouders, of wel de oudstqifi uit hunne Familien, 
ah getuigen, wederom af, zonder de Bruid, ea 
laat zich in de Maziehiet of zoo genoemden 
Moorscheu Tempel op de Hoofd-negerij trou« 
wen, vertrekt na deze verrigting weder caar bo- 
ven, en keert bij zijne getrouwde vrouw in; 
gcene ceremonie heeft uerder plaats, dan een 
maaltijd onder de Familie en de lieden van het 
gehucht, welk bij sommigen vereenigd gaat 
met eenig muziek naar hunne wijs. 

Bij het begraven hunner dooden volgen zij 
mede het Mabometaansch gebruik; uitgeno- 
men dit ééne, dat het 'er bij hen niet op aan 
komt, naar welke streek ze met het hoofd lig- 
gen ; daar in tegendeel een ander Javaan altijd, 
naar de wet, met het hoofd in het zuiden, ea 
de voeten noordwaarts begravea wordt. 



6 o V E R D 



VOLKEREN 



VERHAAL, zoo ah de Oudsten der Volhen 
van BRAM A, TINGERS en verdere 
aangrenzende Gl berg^en tegenwoordig 
van hunne aloude afkomst opgeven, en 
ook de reden waar om thans daar vjel 
JJijen &c. doch ge ene Padie planten. 

Volgens hun zeggen, stammen zij af van eenea 
Poetro en Poetri, die broer en zuster waren, en 
kinderen van eenen nog Heidenschen Sultan of 
Kieij Geedee van Baniam, vt^aar van zij echter 
den naam niet weten, die, om dat zij b^ hanne 
ouders en andere broeders en zusters niet wel ge- 
zien waren, met eenig gevolg hun fortuin gin- 
gen zoeken, om zich elders neer te zetten, en 
hebbende daar Iqq in het westen geen terrein ge- 
vonden, dat onbewoond was, of hun aanstond, 
wijlze onder niemand wilden staan, .zijnze tot 
hier in dit gebergte, dat toenmaals nog onbe- 
woond was, gekomen, en dat als eene eenzame 
plaats naar hunnen zin vindende, hebben zich 
alhier ter neder gezet.— 

Gezeten zijnde, liet die mannelijke Poefro zich 
van de zijnen als hoofd alhier noemen Kieij 
Dadap petak en overwon bij z'jne vrouw vijf en 
twintig kinderen, waar door zeer verlegpi werd 
dezelve te onderhouden, te meer, daar zij'i on- 
derhoorig volkja ook al sterk vermenigvuldigde, 
welk een 2:eheel gebrek aan voedsel tea wcge 



VAN DEN B E 11 G B P. A >f A 7 

bragt, ja zoodaning, dat Dadap pctak als ia 
"wanhoop uitriep voor zijae gansché ^'craeente^ 
Indien ik zoo verre mogte g^^zegend worden, dat 
ik Ulieden en alle mijne kii)deren kan voeden en 
onderhouden, zoo als 't behoort, dan wil ik 
gaarn een van mijne kinderen opofferen aan den 
brandenden Berg Dassar. Tot dien tijd hadden 
zij zich beholpen, met kruid, wortels en eene 
soort van gierst djauoa of door de wandeling dje- 
xvawoot genoemd, om het welk te zoeken zij al 
ver op de i^astgelegoM gdbergten moesten klim- 
men. Bij deze gelegenbeTd ontwaarden zij op 
den berg Mam^roe, dat daar menschen woon* 
êie'^, waar zij naar toe gingen en onderzochten 
wie zij waren; boven komende bevinden zij de- 
zelve te zijneen* man en vrouw, die daar zoo ge- 
noemde Tappas waren ; de man was sc-noennd 
Sarijang WlsexsOy en zijne vrouw Dc'wie 
Soeporbo, aan wien Kicj/ Datap veiaP:, z'jnen 
ellendigen staat te kennen gaf, en om Lnipe ver- 
zocht, dewijl die Sanjctrig Wiscxso en vrouw 
beide personen waren, die zeer heilig leefden, en 
veel vermogten met hunne krachtige voorbidding. 

P^ Tappas bsloofden hem daar bij indachtig 
te ziillen wezen; gelijk zij hem dan ook een 
dag of tv/ee daar na te kennen gaven, dat De- 
ivic Sücporbo 's nachts sla|^encle, inbare hand 
had ontvangen twee zaden, waar van het een 
lOüJ en bet ander wit was, welke zij 's morgens 



8 OVER DE VOLKEREK 

opstaande aan haren man vertoonde^ die hagr 
daar op berigtte, dat^ ^er tot hem 's nachts in 
éen droom eene zoo gen: Suwara awang 
axvang, of stem uit de lucht \^as gekomen^ die 
heiTi gezegd had^ De twee zaden^ die uwer 
zuster heden nacht toegedeeld zijn^ zult gij 
noemen Bawang abcmg en Bawang epoetij of 
Toode en vjitte uijen, en die aan Kieij Dadap 
petak afgeven^ om alhier in deze gebergten 
voort te planten^, die daar dan met alle nakome- 
lingen een ruim bestaan uit zuilen ^vindtm; ea 
tot daaglijkschen mond-kost zult gij hem waar- 
schouwen, dat hij allerhande aard-en peul 
vruchten, doch geene Padie, waar uit men rijst 
stampt, zal mogen aanplanten, want dat gebod 
overtredende zoude hij en alle raenschen, die 
dit laod nu en naderhand bewonen, met het 
laod zelve in ongeluk komen. 

Kieij Dadap petak ontvong voorn : zaden, 
plantteze van tijd tot tijd met de zijnen voort, 
vond twee jaren daar na daar al een ruim be- 
staan uit met zijne Familie en onderhoorigen. 

Toen indachtig wordende zijne beloftenis ge- 
daan in zijnen armoedigen staat, stelde die zij- 
ner gemeente voor, die hem aanraadde, ten beste 
van zijn land en volk, daar aan te voldoen; 
daar op nam hij zijn jongste zoontje, bragt het 
na den brandende ber^ Dassar, ea wierp het 
in den vuurkolk. 



SCHFJKU^rDIGE Ontleding van een Vul 
kaansch Zand en een Tzer-erts. 

DOOR 

THOMAS HORSFÏELD, Med. D-i. 



I. o^HEiKUNDiGE Ontleding vau een vulkaansch 

ïn den nacht tussclien Aqxï 6den en 7den April 
1803, en gedurende eenige uren des laatstgeriiel- 
den daags werd eene fijne^ zwarte^ zandachtige 
stoife in de Stad, en in den omtrek van Batavia^, 
uit de lucht zeer langzaam neergestort. In 'i be- 
gin was het niet bekend waar deze stalFe vaa 
daan kwame^ en de meeniijgen daar omtrent wa- 
ren verdeeld : na verloop vaa eenige dagen werd 
narigt uit de bovenlanden verkregen, dat de 
Donderberg, de Goenoeng Goentoer, in het dis- 
trict Timbangantangj van den Sden tot den 15den 
April hevig gebrand, en zeer groote hoeveelhe- 
den Lava en Zand uitgeworpen had i de fijnste 
deelen van dit zand waren door de siiideli^,ke 
winden tot op Batavia overgevoerd. 

A 



2 ONTLEDING VAN EEN 

Het oogmerk der volgende Proeven was te 
bestemmen^ in hoe verre dit zand in bestand-dee- 
len met de gewone Vülkaanscbe uitwerpselen 
overeenkwamen en het bhjkt daaruit, dat het- 
zelve ïleclits eene verbrijzelde Lava is. 

De kleur van dit Yulkaansche Zand is zwart 
ofzeer donker scraauwachtis', en in eeni<>:e hoeveel- 
beid verzameld ziinde liikent hetzelve naar een 
allerüjast poeder^ waarifi eenige gliusterenda 
deeltjes waargenomen worden ; hetzelve wordt 
sterk van den Magneet aangetrokken. 

Proeve I. Twee honderd greinen van dit 
Zand werden in eene once Konings vvater^ dat 
met eenige oneen gedestilleerd v/ater verdund 
"was, een unr gekookt ; de vloeistoiFe werd nu 
door filtrering afgezonderd, en bet overblijfsel, 
met gedestilleerd water uitgewasschen zijnde, 
w^erd zorgvuldig gedroogd ; bet. woog naauw^ 
kenrig lionderd vijf en zeventig greinen. 

Proeve II. Uit de solutie werden de opge- 
loste deelen door het planten loog-zout neêrge- 
ploft, die op het filtrum wel uitgewasschen en 
zorgvuldig gedroogd, dertig greinen wogen. 

Proeve III. Dewijl het van de Ite Proeve 
overblijvend Zand nog gedeeltelijk van den 
Magneet aangetrokken werd, zoo werd het zei- 
Te met verdund zwavel-zuur; bij hcrhaliig ge- 



V U L K A A N S C H ZAND ENZ, S 

kookt, tot dat zich geene oplosseüjke deelen 
meer toonden; het ouoplosselijk overbiyfsel 
werd, uitgewasschen zijnde, op het filtruai ver- 
zameld en gedroogd, het woog honderd acht en 
'^ijfl^p^ greinen ; niets daarvan v/erd thans vaa 
den Magneet aangetrokken. 

Proeve IV. Tot deze, door het zwavel- 
zuur gemaakte solutie^ werd zoo lang planten 
loogzout gevoegd, tot geene neerplofüng meer 
plaats had — Het gedroogde neêrplofsel woog 
Z'ijf en twintig greinen. 

Proeve V. Het neêrplofsel der laatste Proe^ 
Te, wegend vijf en twintig greinen, en dat der 
tweede Proeve, wegend dertig greinen, werden 
gemengd en met gedestilJeerden az jn gekookt^ 
om de kalk of bitteraarde, die zij inhouden 
mogten, optenemen. — De onopgeloste deelen 
werden op het filtrum uitgewasschen, en daarop 
zorgvuldig gedroogd; zij wogen naauwkeurig 
vijf en twintig greinen. — De azijn werd tot 
droogte uitgewasemd, en op het overblijfsel ver- 
dund zwavel-zuur gegoten, om zich met de 
kalkaarde tot seleniet {oï sul f as calcis) en met 
de bitteriiarde tot bitterzout {oï siilfas niagne^ 
siae of epsom zout) te verbinden. Eenige oneen 
v^edestiileerd water werdea 'er bij ge voegde oirj 



# o N T t E ï) I N G V A K E E K 

liet biiferzout van den onoplosselijken selenïet^ 
aftesclieiden. 

Uit de doorgeziJ2:de vloeistoffen werd door liet 
planten loogsout, de Bitteraarde neêrgeploft, 
die gedroogd vijf gféineu woog. 

De gedroogde Seleoiet woog achiien greinen; 
(waarvan omtrent twee derde gedeelten kalkaar* 
de of tvYaalf greinen, het overige zwavel-zuur en 

"Water waren ) 

Proete VI. Met, na de behandeling met 
azijn zuur overbHjvende neêrplofsel, dat vijf en 
twintig greinen woog (sie laatste proeve) werd 
in verdund zeezout zuur opgelost: Tot de op* 

iossiiig v^erd blaaawzuur loog zout ( Prussias 
pntassae) gevoegd^ zoo lang" als eenige neerplof-» 

£og plaats bad. 

Het blaauw-zure ijzer (of Berlijnscb blaauw) 
werd op eeo filtninii verzameld^ met planten 
loogzout gekooktj en met gedestilleerd water 
wel uitgewasscben ; bier door werd het blaauw- 
Züur opgenomen, en bet ijzer alleen overgelaten, 
v/elk gedroogd tien greinen woog. 

Proeve VIÏ. Tot de2:cfiltreerde vloeistofFe/ 
na de afscheiding van bet blaanvv-zure ijzer, 
werd zoo lang planten loogzout gevoegd, iot 
geeue neerploffing meer plaats had, — Het nctr- 



V U L 11 A A N S C H ZAND E N Z. 5 

plofsel werd met gedestilleerd water wel nliire- 
wasscben rn 2:edr(>ogd, het was zuivere Aluin- 
aarde, en woog diVtien greinen —Twee honderd 
greinen van dit vulkanische Zand hestaan dus uit 
5 greinen Bitteraarde, Proeve V. 

12 Kalkaarde, Proeve V. 

10 ^ Yzer, Proeve VI. 

13 Aluinaarde, Proeve VII. 

158 . Kiezelaarde, Proeve III. 



198 greinen 
2 



greinen') 
verlies ) 



200 

Volgens naauwkeurigc scheikundige ontleding 
bestaan de gewone vulkanische voortbrengsels 
als Lava, Basalt &a. uit Kiezel-Aluin- en 
Kalkaarde met een weinig Magnesia en Yzer, 
in verscheidene evenredigheid van menging; 
de overeenkomst van dit zand in bestand-deelen 
met deze vulkanische zelfstandigheden aante« 
toonen, was het oogmerk der verhaalde proeven. 

II. Scheikundige proeven met het Massoe- 
rong. 

De mineralische zelfstandigheid, welke het 
onderwerp der volgende proeven is, is eene 
i^^zer-erts, welk in de Jakatrasche Bovenlan- 
den gevondeu woi'dt : de stukken zijn van ver- 



b ONTLEDING TAN EEN 

scliilleode grootts^ van eene balve drachma tot- 
eenige ponden in gewigt ; de kle^r van buitea 
is witachtig-^re], en glanzend; zij zijn bros 
en laten zich ligt in stukken slaan^ van binnen 
zijn zij 1'gter van kleur en meer «^lanz^nd. De 
meeste stukken zijn ongeregeld gekristalli- 
zeerd ; eenige hebben de gedaante van regel- 
matige vierzijdige, toe2:egpitBte kristallen ; van 
de Inlanders worden zij veel tot knoopen ver- 
werkt; De gewone Hollandsche benaming i* 
staal-steen. 

De volgende proeven toonen de bestand^ 
deelen. 

Proeve I. Een honderd greinen dezer 
ITzer erts klein gestampt zijnde^ werden in eeneri 
kleinen bedekten kroes, een half uuT;, aan eene 
hevige hitte blootgesteld; toen de kroes geo'^ 
pend wierd, ontvlamde de masse als pijrophorus, 
en menigvuldige zwavel dampen stegen in 
de hoogte ; sporen van Arsenic toonden zich 
niet. Na de verkoeling woog de massa vijf en 
zeventig greinen — Zij was thans van donker 
bruine kleur^ en liet zich gemakkelijk tot poe- 
der wrijven. 

Proeve II. Een honderd greinen, fijn ge- 
stampte Massocroiig, werden met ec.ie once ve^ 
dinid zee-züut zuur gekooki ; gedurende cfe 



V U L K A A N S C H ZAND ENZ. 7 

liolvin:^ ontwikkelden zich vele zwavel dampen.— 
Do vloeistoffc Avicrd afgezonderd en het restant 
wel uiti^ewasschen; het v^oog gedroogd ne^ 
gentio; greinen^ en werd nog sterk van den 
?^ai;iieet aangetrokken. 

Proeve III. Dit restant wierd in eenen klei- 
nen kroes, met 15 greinen kolen stof 2:emeno:d, en 
een \nu lang sterk gegloeid; het overblijfsel 
werd nu bij herhaling met verdund zwavel 
zuur gekookt, tot niets meer opgelost werd ; 
op de vloeistoffe zwommen glanzende schilfert- 
jesj d^le op 'i vuur, als zwavel roken. Na 
geschiede oplossing woog het restant twaalf 
greinen, van den Magneet werd Ifet niet aange- 
trokken ; het was grootstendeels Kiezel-aarde. 

Proeve IV. De solutien der ildeen llide 
Proeve wierden gemengd, en door het planten 
loog-zout alle opgeloste deelen neergeploft, die 
op het fiilrum, uitgewasschen en daar cp ge- 
droogd wierden. — Zij wogen zeventig greinen. 

Proeve V. Deze zeventig greinen, werden 
in zes oneen gedestilleerden azijn gekookt; ds 
onopgeloste deelen door (iitrering afgezonderd, 
en de azijn tot droogte uitgewasemd ; verdund 
zwavel zuur werd toegevoegd, om de moge- 
lijk aanwezcnde Kalk-aarde van de Magnesia 
te scheiden; de onopgeloste declcn. welke selu- 



ö ONTLEDING VAN EEN &€■, 

Biet wareiij, wogen gedroogd twee grein:^n ; en 
uit de met gedestilleerd VYater verdunde vloei» 
stofFe werden door bet planten Ioo<>:zout drie 
greinen Magnesia (Bitteraarde) neêrgeploft. 

Proeve VI. De na de kooking met azija 
onopgeloste deelen (der laatste proeve) v*^erdeii 
in zeezout zuur opgelost en met water ver- 
dund; blaauw zuur Ioo«:zout werd toesrevoes:^. 

' CD O O 

tot geene neêrplofiing meerplaats had ; bet neêr- 
plofsel werd door filtrering afgezonderd en met 
planten-loogzout gekookt; de wel uitgewas- 

scbene en gedroogde Yzer-kalk v^oog negen 
en veertig greinen. 

Proeve VII. Uit de gefiltreerde vloeistofFe 
( de' Vide Proeve) werdendoor het plantsii- 
loogzout zes greinen Aluin-aarde neêrgeploft. 

Volgens deze proeven bevatten iOO greinea 
Mnssoerong, 

25 greinen Zwavel, Proeve ï. 

49 , — -^ — ^ Yzer-kalk, Proeve VI. 

23 Aardachtige deelen, 

Pr. II], V en 

3 (voor verlies) 

ÏOO in'einen. 



OVER DE Rivier VAN Solo ineen' brief 
aan de Dirigerende Leden van het Ba-^ 
taviasche Genootschap, 
Wel Edele Zeer Geachte Heeren! 



i.- — jlN 't be^in der maand November, laaf sten 
Jaars, had ik de eer aan den Wel Edelen Heer 
Secretaris van *t Genootschap een beknopt narigt 
van mijne verrigtingen in de Javaansche Boven- 
landen, sedert m ju vertrek van Salatiga in de 
maand olulij, toetezenden : ik meldde tevens 
dat het mijn voorhebben was, m'jsie reis langs 
de Rivier van Soio, naar Grissce voorttezetten. 
Mijne nasporingen in de Javaansche Bovenlan- 
den zoo verre geëindigd zijnde op het tijdstip, 
dat de Rivier door de vroeg ingevallen regens 
wederom bevaarbaar geworden was, oordeelde 
ik dienstig, om van de aan handen zijnde gele- 
genheid gebruik te maken, om met een naar den 
Oosthoek van Java aftegaan, terwijl ik te gel ij- 
ker tijd het inzigt hadj om de kanten dezer Rivier 
natesporcn. 

A 



S DYEHDERïVtËE 

S.— Ik vertrok dus met de twe9 leerlingen uit 
d* Mirinescho^ïl, den 9den November van Soe* 
ra^:ar^a. Deze Rivier, die gewoonlijk de Rivier 
van Saïo 2:enoemd wordt, is waarschijn] ?jk de 
grootste van het eiland Java:; ontspringt in de 
gebergten van Kadoewang (een der Zuidelijke 
RegeEïtschappen der Javaansche Bovenlanden) 
op eenen o;erina;en afstand van het Znidcr-strand, 
en vetvolirt haren loop bijna noordelijk, schoon 
met veel bogten kronkelende, tot Soerakarta ; 
hier neemt dezelve eene bijna oostelijke rigtini^ 
aan ; omtrent eene halve dagreis ten oosten van 
Soerakarta bereikt men de grensscheiding des 
Mattarams ; vervolgens slingert zich de Riviei' 
door de Regentschappen van Soekkowatie, Djo- 
goroogo, Madioen, Djiepajig en Bloera (die on- 
der de vorsten van Java behooren ) heen ; waar- 
op zij door de Strand-ïlegentscbappen van Toe- 
ban, Sidajo en Griessse haren loop tot in zee 
vervolgt. 

S.-^De toestand des landbou ws is in de verschil- 
lende Regentschappen zeer verscheiden — De 
Mattaraiïi is, als bekend* over 't algemeen ia 
eenen voikoaienen graad van kuUuur; zoo is 
ook het Regentschap van Soekkowatie. 

Uitgestrekte Rijstvelden, plantagien van Ta- 
bak^ Djarak, Turksch koorn (of Djagon) Nila^ 



VAN SOLO S 

en vele anderen der gewone lurMiondelijke ge- 
wassen, wisselen gedurig mot Dessas van meer 
of minder grootte af. Het Regcntscbap van Djo- 
goroog'o is in 't algemeen weinig bebouwd^ en 
beide kanten der Rivier zijn, behalve maar en- 
kelde gecultiveerde streken, met uitgestrekte 
wouden en bosschen begrenst. Dc^ Regentschap- 
pen van Madioen en Djiepang zijn reeds in eenea 
volkomenen graad van bebouwing, Biocra is 
grooten deels met bosschen bedekt. 

De Stra^id-regentschappen van Toeban en Si« 
d:go bereikt hebbende, ontv/aart men eenen in 't 
0\>2:vfillenden verbeterden toestand aller kuituren ; 
ook zijn de Dessas of Dorpen grootcr, zindclij* 
fcer en beter .jjebouwd. 

4. — ^^Van den oorsprong af, en door de Malta» 
ram, Soekkowatie, Djogoroogo ^n Madioen is 't 
bed der Rivier rotsachtig en de loop meerendeels 
snel; bij Awe eene groote Chinesche Tolpoort 
aan de grensscheiding der Regentschappen Ma- 
dioen en Djiepang, aan den Oostkant der Riyier 
gelegen, stort zich de Rivier van Madioen, ( vrel- 
ke bijna van dezelfde grootte is, ) in die vaa 
Solo, een weinig beneden deze vereeniging wordt 
de loop bedaarder, en de Rivier stropnit gere- 
geld en statig yooït, tot in See, 



4 OVERDERIVIER 

5. — De Bossclien laogs de kanten in de Re- 
gentscbappen Djogoroogo en Bioera bestaan 
nieerendeels uit jati-boomen, met de gewone 
Boomsoorten onder gemengd^ die men in Jau 
bossc'hen ontmoet. — ^Hiervan heb ik een* Cata- 
logus met een getal gedroogde voorbeelden ver- 
zameldj welken ik met een uitvoeriger berigt 
aangaande nrj:ie R^ns en bemerkingen, de eer 
hebben zal_, bet Genootschap aant.bieden. 

6 — Deze Rivier is van groot belang voor den 
liandei der Javaanscbe binnenlanden ; een. groot 
getal praauwen gaan dezelvejaarlijks naar Gris- 
sée af, met de voortbrengselen der aan dezelve 
grenzende Regentschappen beladen. Deze vaar^ 
tuigen zijn van zeer verffchiileade grootte; de 
lïiiddel-soort laadt 15 tos 25, de grootere 50 ko- 
jangs. Etikelde van 100 kojangs vertrekken 
jaarlijks van Soerakarta. — Hier uit blijkt de 
grootte en diepte dezer Rivier. 

Kleinere praauv^en kunnen dezelve tot Soera- 
Icarta en nog verder naar boven, met uitzonde- 
ringder droogste maanden van August en Septem-» 
"ber, het geheele jaar door bevaren; de grootere 
echier vertrekken^ na dat dezelve door de re- 
gens aangezwollen is, in de maanden December 
en Jcinuarij. In 6 tot 8, (somtijds in 3 tot 4) 
dagen gaau dezelve luai* Grissée, de terug- 



y A N s o L o b 

reis veraischt 3 en in sommige gevallen 4 maan- 
den; zij kunnen dus jaarlijks maar eene reis doen, 
In de maand Mei komen zij gewoonlijk te rug 
naar Soerakarta^ voornamelijk met zout en an- 
dere behoeften en vele goederen voor *t ver- 
tier en den handel der Binnenlanden beladen. 

De in de Javaansche Bovenlanden voortgeteel- 
de Peper gaat jaarlijks in de maand Januarij met 
eene vloot viin 10 tot 12 vaartuigen, gewoonlijk 
van 50 koijangs, van Soerakarta naar Grissée 
af, onder de benaming der Peper-vloot. 

7. — Den I8den November kw^am ik op Gris- 
sée, van waar ik terstond mijnen v/eg naar Soe- 
rabaija vervolgde. 

8. — Hier vond ik noodzakelijk eenige weken 
te besteden tot het zorgvuldig nazien der ge- 
durende mijne Reizen verzamelde planten en 
Medicijnen, om dezelve te^cn bederf van Insek- 
ten en vocht te bewaren. Vervolgens schikte ifc 
mij om voor het doorkomen der regens, nog een 
binnenlandscli Reisje te ondernemen, en ver- 
trok den ISdc'n December naar Passoeroewansr. 
Mijn oogmerk was een' uitstap te doen naar 
het Tinggersche Gebergte, het welk op den 
afstand van omtrent 6 uren zuidelijk van de- 
ze Hoofdplaats gelegen is. Dit is een uitge- 
strekt Gebergte yaii middelmatige hoogte, het 



6 



OVER DE RIVIER 



v.elk van het Oosten naar 't Westen door het 
jreheele Regentschap van Passoeroewan^ heen 
loopt, en wi-n? voet nog- een gedeelte des Re- 
g-cntsc!iaps B.inger in 't Oosten en Kangii ia 't 

ll'esten beslaat. 

9. — Het Tinggersche Gebergte is in opzigt 
vp.n ligging en vruchtbaarheid een der belang- 
rij'iste Gebergten van Java — de vlakten Langs 
deszelfs voet zijn met Rijst-vdJen en Jati-bos- 
ïchen bedekt. De lans: uitgestrekte en Z'ch 
zacht schuins verheffende Noordkant levert uit- 
gebreide streken van vruchtbare grondet)^ die 
tot de voordeel igste kulturen, en voornamelijlc 
Ook tot deKoffij-teelt voortreffelijk geschikt zijn. 
De top des bergs bestaat uit cene aan een ge- 
schakelde reeks van heuvelen, wier kanten in 
enkelde gevallen wel sieil, in de meeste echter 
schuins en ^ereö'eid afbellend ziin. Deze heu- 
velen met de tusschcn liggende valleijen leveren 
eene streek^ ^ycike de meeste gelijksoort igheid 
Leeft met verschjidene der zuidelijke landen van 
Europa. Deze gesteldheid van lucht en grond 
%v()rdt \vel in verscheidene andere dcelen des 
Eilands, voornamelijk aan de kanten der irroote 
vuurhrnk'Mide bcr2:en aanïietroffer) : hier echter 
'is de uitg^slrokthcid veel grooter, want de ge- 
Tieele top van dit uiigebreide Gebergte kon. 



VAN SOLO i 

met d(^ uitzond Tin»: van eenis;^ sfeiPen, in 
vruchtbare bouwlanden veranderd worden. 

10. — Over 't al2;emeen is de <^roei des Plan- 
ten-rijks in de aarde des Tini:2:er'? driftii^cr 
enwoelden'i^er dan in de andere doden des Ei- 
lands. Gewassen, die ik elders als kleinere plan- 
tjes gevonden heb, stonden hier als heesters, ea 
vele heesters hadden de grootte van middeln^ia- 
tige boomen. 

1 1. — De grondslag of basis van het geheel Ge- 
bergte is Lawa, welke aan de oppervlakte 
reeds sedert ondenkelijke tijden ontbond'^n, en 
in vruchtbaren e:rond veranderd is. De Bera: 
is een volkaan, en v/cl een der voornaamsten des 
Eilands — Do Crater bevindt zich in het mid- 
den van het Gebergte ( van 't Oosten naar Wes- 
ten gerekend) en een weinig aan den af hel- 
lenden Zuidkaiit. Dc^ze Crater heeft geduren- 
de de laatste jaren dikwijls, en bijzonder in 
de m land September van 't jiar 1804 hevig ge- 
braakt, en ontzaggelijke hoeveelheden van 
fijn zand uitgeworpen, die do aanleggende stre- 
ken t(xt op een' grooten afstand bedekt heeft. 
Dit zan.d met de reeds sedert langen tijd ont- 
bondene L;iwa gemengd, is de voornaamste 
oorzaak der vruchtbaarheid van het Geberg- 
te. Geen cnkeide steen cf rots wordt op de 



8 OVERDERIVIER 

aan een geschakelde reeks van hemelen, die den 
top des Tinggers uitmaakt, gevonden, als eenige 
groote B.isalt- en Lawa- rotsen uitzonderde die 
in de groote valleijen, vraar de grond door de 
regens weggespoeld is, en in het bed van eenige 
Rivieren gevonden worden. 

12. — De heuvelen des tops van het Tingger- 
sche Gebergte zijn grootstendceis niet zwaar 
en groot geboomte begroeid ; op de tot den 
landbouw schoongemaakte streken, vt^orden aan- 
zienlijke hoeveelheden van Europische granen, 
inzonderheid Tarwe, Rogge en Gierst voortge- 
teeld. De meeste soorten van moeskruiden, keu- 
ken-gewassen en wortelen groeijeo weelderig. 
Met wijnranken heeft rnen voor dezen eene 
proeve gedaan, welke veel belovend is uitgeval- 
len; zij groeiden weelderig en leverden menig- 
vuldige vruchten. De Javaansche Berg-be- 
woners houden ?.ieh voornamelijk met de teelt 
van Ajuin bezig, die aan de afbellende kanten 
der heuvelen weelderig groeijen, dewelke zij 
in de Beneden-landen, tegen verscheidene hun- 
ner behoeften die hier niet voortkomen, verrui- 
len. Deze zijn voornamplijk Siri-bladen en 
Rijst, welke laatste echter maar in geringe hoe- 
veelheid, en als een artikel der luxe, gebruikt 
wordt, want het gewone voedsel der Berg-be- 
woncrca bestaat ia Turksch koren of Jagou. 



VAN SOLO 



9 



13. — De Persik-boomen, die men hïer, in de 
Groent<.-tuinen geplant heeft, tieren volkomen 
wel, en derzelver vruchten zijn grooter en 
smakelijker, dan ikze op andere plaatsen des Ei- 
lands gevonden heb. Uit een jcroot £:etal plan- 
ten, welke het Tinggersche Gebergte voort- 
brengt, en lÏQ maar aan koudere landen eigea 
jijn, zal ik de volgende hier opnoemen. 

1. Eene soort van Eikenboom; ( dien ik 
echter reeds op den Berg Zawoe gevoudea 
maar hier nader te onderzoeken gelegenheid ge- 
had heb) het hout is hard, sterk en deugdzaam ; 
de Bergbcwoiieren kappen het tot planken^ 
welke zij tot het bouwen van hunne huizea 
bezigen. 

2. De Fragaria vesca of gemeene aardbe* 
zie, met kleine weinig smakelijke vruchten. 

3. Verschiedene soorten Rubus of Frani-* 
bozen. 

4. Eene soort Geranium, eene soort Ceras» 
tium, Ranunculus, Stachijs, Andromeda cii 
Vaccinium. 

H — AUcmnal planten, die maar in koude ge- 
westen voortkomen, en een verder bewijs ople- 
veren der Analogie dezer Berg-strekea met 

B 



10 OVÏRDERIVIER' 

koude landen^ en der vatbaarheid des gröiids 
ter teelt van Europisclie planten en vruchten. 

In de maand Julij 1804 heeft het op dït Ge- 
bergte (in de Dessa waar de Tuinier zijne wo- 
ning heeft) ijs gevrozen ter dikte eenes Duka- 
tonSj volgens het getuigenis des Heeren Hes- 
seiaar op Passoeroewang, 

15 — Maar even deze gesteldheid van luchten 
grond, maakt deze Berg-streken volstrekt on- 
geschikt ter voortteeling der gewone planten 
van warme landen. Rijst, Pinang, Klappus, 
Siri, Pisang, en de andere gewone vruchten en 
planten des Eilands groeijen hier in 't geheel 
niet; van de Beneden-landen hier komende 
schijnt men plotseling naar een ander wereld* 
deel verplaatst te zijn. 

16. — Dit gebergte levert vele dier Geneeskun- 
dige planten, die ik reeds op andere plaatsen des 
Eilands gevonden, en van sommige waar vaa 
ik voorbeelden aan 't Genootschap gezonden heb : 
Onder anderen de Mdia, Kaioe Soerecji. Het 
Ophioxijlon serpentinum of Poele Pandak, en 
eene eigenaardige soort die hier Foclean ge* 
noemd wordt. 

De Artemisia Kodo-Moito (hier Gandjar^ 
genoemd) eene Javaauschc soort van Alsem. 



VAN SOLO 11 

Dc Beionica Javeiisis Tjavig-goal genoemd; 

De Laiirm Krangeang ; en eene bijzonde- 
re soort van Laurns. 

De Chloranlhus spiratus in de Jakatrasche 
Bovenlanden Krastodang, hier echter Paloe 
Dengen genoemd. 

Eene Javaansche soort van vliet of Sambu- 
Ciis — Benevens vele anderen. 

Een in andere deelen des Eilands zeldzaam 
gewas is de Ophiorhiza JMungas ( L. ) reeds ia 
de G(;nceskunde bekend, echter nog weinig 
onderzocht. 

Het Porono Djievo der Javanen (waarschijn-» 
lijk eene soort Andira volgens Jussieu) groeit 
hier meerder dan op andere plaatsen^ echter 
niet meniofvuldia:. 

17. — Meerdere der Javaansche Geneeskundi- 
ge planten, worden in de lagere streken aart 
den voet des Bergs gevonden. Deze zoo wel 
als een naaiiwkeurig narigt omtrent dit Ge- 
bergte, deszclfs bewoners en voortbrenselen, en 
deszelfs volkaansche Geschiedenis, zal ik in 
«en bijzonder bcrigt afhandelen. 

IS. — Eene enkelde waarneming, op mijne Reis 
gedaan, en die eenig licht op de volkaansche 
gesteldheid des Bergs verspreidt, zal ik hier 



Ï3 ©VESlDERïVlEll 

"bijvoegen; Langs eenen afgekapten lieyvel 
deezes bergs bemerkte ik volgende afzonder* 
Jijke beddiogen (stiata) van DeUsioïïen. 



Eene bedding* lawa, van de oppervlakte 
|n kleine brokken 6 voet diep; hier op volgt, 

2de Eene bedding fijn zwart zand 6 Jw/m. 
2de Eene bedding grijs zand, in horizon- 
tale strepen 6 duim. 
4de Eene bedding zv^^art zand, 6 duim. 

5de Eene bedding gele leemachlige Gewas* 
aarde 5 röc^. 

'Ode Eenel)edding lawa In brokken 13 dfwzm, 

7de Eei3C bedding Gewas-aarde 2 voet. 

8de Eene bedding grof zand IS duim. 

ld. — Niï. eene> zoo veel de aanhoudende re» 
gens van dit jaargetij toelieten, aanzienlijke ver- 
izaYïi(iin^ van de planten, heesters en hoornen 
^an dit Gebergte gemaakt te hebben, keerde ik 
ïiaar Pa3soeroe^7ang tcrng, om dezelven volko- 
men te droogen en te bewaren, te rangschikken, 
en meerdere daar van te laten afteekenen ; hier 
ïïiede mij tot den 20 Januarij (A. C.) bezig 
gehouden hebbende, ging ik wederom naar Soe- 
rabaija, waar ik gedurende het overige des 
llsgcïitijds mijn verblijf hebbe. 



VAN SOLO IS 

SÜ — Nc^ neem ik de vrijheid aangaaode mij*- 
ne bezigbedea en uitzigten het voigeade bij- 
te voegen : 

1 Dat ik sedert mijn laatst Berigt aan 't 
Genootschap^ en gedurende mijne Reizen langs 
óf Soiosche Rivier en naar het Tiiiggersche 
G bers:te voortgegaan ben mij ter hoofdzaak 
te miken, alle, zoo wel van den inlander ge- 
bruikt als door mij bijzonder waargenomene 
Gi^iieeskundige planten, kennen te leeren, t(e 
verzamelen en te onderzoeken ; schoon de na- 
dere beproeving^ en de bepaling hunner wer- 
king, tot mijne terugkomst te Batavia bewaard 
blijft. 

Mijne Lijst van Geneeskundige planten is 
sedert mijn Berigt van Salatiga met verschei- 
dene nieuwe vermeerderd geworden. 

2. Dat ik alic de rai.ider bekende of nieuwe 
planten, in 't algemeen, heb laten afteekenen^, en 
ook eene redelijk aanzienlijke verzameling van 
tusschen papier gedroogde planten vervaar- 
dig heb. 

o. Dat ik eenige der laatste weken^^ gedu- 
rende mijn verblijf op Soerabaija besteed heb, 
om, in vereeniging met den Heer L'Eschenault 
de la Tour, die in de Oostersche deelen des Ei- 
lands eene verzameling voor den EJeleu Heei 



li o V Eïl I> E E I V I E R 

Gouv. van Java gemaakt heeft, de door ons 
beiden op verschillende plaatsen ontdekte Nieu- 
we Geslachteji te onderzoeken, te beschrijven, 
hunne plaats in *t SJjstema te bepalen, en teffens 
hunne onderscheidende kruidkundige karakterea 
te laten afteekenen, 

4. Dat ik eenige mijner ledige uren bestede 
om eenig onderzoek te doen, en een kort berigt 
te verzamelen, aangaande verscheidene onder- 
werpen, die ook tot het bestek des Genootschaps 
behooren, namelijk de Javaaosche viervoetige 
dieren, vogelen en insekten; de Mineralogische 
geschiedenis des Eilands; de taai der inwoneren 
en de or.dbeden die op verscheidene plaatsen ge- 
vonden worden ; schoon ik geenszins beloven kan 
aangaande deze onderwerpen een volstandig be- 
rigt hij een te brengen, 

5. Bedien ik mij van deze gelegenheid oni 
aangaande de twee Leerlingen uit het Marine 
school van Samaraiig aantemerken, dat liet getal 
der afgebeelde planten thans iets over de twee 
honderd hereikt heeft — Het zijn meerendeels te 
voren nog niet in *t licht gegevene onderwerpen, en 
ik vleije mij dat zij eenstijds, met de door mij daar 
bij vervaardigde gedroogde voorbeelden, zul- 
len kunnen dienen, om door kunstenaars in Eu- 
jopa riaauwkeurige platen te vervaardigen ; en 



V A N S o L o 15 

naardien het werk nu meerdere tiifgcbreidlieid 
en belang verkrijgt^ zoo heb ik dienstig geacht 
om bij tijds aan 't Genootschap kennis te ge- 
ven, dat het, niet alleen ter voorzetting des 
werks, maar ook ter voltooijing roeerderer on- 
derwerpen, die gedurende eene Reis niet heb- 
ben kunnen volkomen afgewerkt worden, nood- 
zakelijk wezen zal, ora de leerlingen of den 
meest bekwamen derzelve, tot het werk in 
dienst aantehouden. Ik zal hier omtrent ech- 
ter, bij mijne terugkomst naar Samarang, de 
Doodige informatie aan 't Genootschap zenden, 
met verzoek aan Geëerde Heeren Dirigerende 
Leden, ora het vereiscbte bij de Hooge Rege- 
ring te behartigen. 

Aan den oudsten der jongelingen heb ik eene 
kleine toelage van Rijdsdaalders 5 maandelijks 
verstrekt, hopende dat Geëerde Heeren Diri- 
gerende Leden dit zullen goedkeuren, dewijl 
hij, nog niet Kadet zijnde, zonder het zelve gee- 
re inkomsten heeft. De jongere is totnogtoe 
van zijne nabestaanden op Samarang met het 
noodige voorzien geworden. 

21. — Mijn voorhebben is thans, z(>o dra de 
regens ophouden, of ten verste den lOden Apiil, 
ïTiijne Reis voorttezetfen, en door de Oostersche 
Regentschappen des Oosthoeks, naar Banjoe-- 



IS OVBEBEEIViEE 

wangie voorltegaan, en vervolgens tegen het 
einde des S/jeden MoqssodS;» (oratrend dc^ maand 
September) naar Sannaraog en van daar met 
een naar Batavia terug te keeren. 

22. — De kennis geving van mijne verrigtin* 
gen van tijd tot tijd, is niet zoo geregeld ea 
sliptelijk als ik wenscbte, en als aan Geëerde Hee- 
ren Dirigerende Leden zal toeschijnen te behoo- 
ren, dewTJl hier van echter, niet alleen mijne 
afgelegene situatie, maar ook voornamelijk de 
meiHgv'üldige bezigheden, welke mijne naspo- 
ringen mij gedfivig verschaffen, de oor 2 aak is, 
èoo hoop, ik dat G. H. D. L. dit zullen ge- 
lievesi te verschoonen. Mijoe ernstige poo* 
ging blijft, om bij mijne wederkomst op Ba* 
tavia, derzelver goedkeurig weg te dragen. 

23 — Ik beveel mij ii\ Geëerde Heeren Diri» 
gerende Leden verdere genegens gezindheid, en 
heb de eer mij met zuiverste koog achting te 
. teekenen^ 

Wel Edele-Zeer Geachte Heeren 1 
üvy- Wei Edeiens 
Gehoorzame Dienaar 

THOMAS HORSFIËLa 

oOEn/iBAIJA, 

Maart den olsten 



EI 

J^AAR DE OOStER-STREKEM 

VAN 

JAVA* 



Aan de Wel Edele Heeren, Dirigerende Leden 
van hei Bataviaasch Genootschap. 

Wel Edele zeer Geachte Heeren ! 



1. In mjn laatste Berigt, van den 31ste 
Maart 1. 1. meldde ik aan Geachte Heeren 
Dirigerende Leden> het Plan tot mijne yerdere 
verrigtingen, in Java's Oosthoek. In gevolge 
deszelven, begaf ik mij, na het ophouden der> 
Regens in het midden der maand April, van Sou»^ 
r^baija over Passoeroewang, naar Banger, om 
het onderzoek der Oostersche Regentschappen 
te beginnen. Na de noodige nasporingen in 
den omtrek Van Bessoe, de verblijfplaats dea 
Opzieners der Bangersche Houtbosschen, ver* 
trok ik naar La Madjang, welk Regentschap ilc 
gedurende de maand Mei, in verscheidene rig- 
iiiigea doorkruiste. 

C 



18 RÈlS NAAR DE O ö S T Ë E-S T R ElCElT 

2. La Madjang is altbans^ behalve in den op> 
middel ijken omtrek der Hoofdplaats, weinig be^ 
bouvvd, en zeer uitgebreide streken zijn geheel 
met woüd bedekt : het wordt in 'i Noorden door 
Banger, in 't Oosten door Poegar, en in 't Zui^ 
êen door de Zee begrenst/ de berg Sraeero 
scheidt het in *t Westen van Malang af. 

3. Deze Berg door de Javanen Smeero, door 
de Maleijers Mahameero genoemd, is veelligt de 
grootste van bet Eiland Java, deszelfs zuidelijke 
Voet strekt zich tot aan den 2ee-kant uit^ en in 
^t Noordon verecnigt hij zich met het Teng-ger- 
sche Gebergte; hij heefi eene kegelvormige 
gedaante, en is even als de voornaamste Bergen 
des Eilands, -een volkaan. De Landstreken die 
deszelfs voet omringen, zijn meerendeels sacht 
afhellend, en rijkelijk van Rivieren en Beken 
doorsneden; de grond bestaat uit eene zwarte 
vruchtbare tuin-aarde, en is tot de teeJt van alle 
Javaansche Voortbrengselen, voortreffelijk ge-» 
schikt. De midden Gewesten hebben dezelfde 
gesteldheid als het Teiig-gerschc Gebergte, en 
leveren dezelfde gewassen op. De top dea Berga 
is kaal en van alle gewassen ontbloot, naardien 
bij zich boven de lijn van begroeibaarheid ver- 
heft; echter even min als alle andere Bergen de^ 
EilaadSj ooit mü sneeuw bedekt. In twee ex- 



V A N J A V A 19 

cursieii naar dit Gebergte, bad ik gelegenheid 
deszelfs voortbreng'solen te leeren kcnnsn en ge-», 
deeltelijk te verzamelen. 

4. "E^.ne andere excursie was naar het Zuiden 
gerigfc. De streek van La Madj:uig naar het 
Suider Zoe-strand is volkomen effen, en de toe- 
gang gemakkelijker, dan op de meeste andere 
plaatsen. De keten der Zuider strand-geberg- 
tcn is hier afsreb roken : maar verheft zich weer 
in 't Zuidwesten van La Madjang, en strekt zich 
vervolgens tot naar de Mattaram uit, 

5. Na bij de noordelijke grens van La Ma*»- 
djang, is in het Regentschap Banger de Berg La 
Mongan gelegen, een volkaan, di^ na een stilstand 
van bijna zeven jiren^ verleden maand April 
weer begon te rooken en uit te werpen. Geda* 
rende mijn verblijf in den omtrek van La Ma- 
djang ontlastte hij bij vlagen, na tusschenpoo-» 
gingen van tien tot vijftien minuten, eene ont-. 
saggelijk groote, lijnregt opstijgende hoeveel- 
Iieid van rook ; en des nachts waa deszelfs kruia 
van eenen elocüenden krinj^ omrir.^'dj waaruit 
men van tijd tot tijd vuur zag opi ijzen. De 
ontlastingen wrarcn van een hevig donderend ge-, 
druisch vergezeld, v/aarvan de aarde trilde; in 
't begin echter waren dezelve, volgens bcrigt des 
Posthouders op Li Madjang, veel teyiger, ea 



'.20 EEIS NAAR DE OOSTBÏl-STn.EIiEN 

eene hoeveelheid zand werd door iedere ontlas» 
ting uitgeploft^ welk op ver afgelegene plaatsea 
nedervicl. 

6, In 't begin der maand Junij, ging ik naar 
Poegar^ door de uitgestrekte vlakte, die vaa 
den voet der Lamongansche en Ijangsche Ge- 
bergten, tot aan het Zuider Zes-strand reikt. 
Dit uitgestrekt Regentschap wordt in 't westen 
door La Madjang, in *t zuiden door de Zee, 'm 



^i oosten door Blambacgan en in *t noorden door 
Banger,. Bisoeki en Panaroekan begrenst, het 
wordt ook het westersche Blambangan genoemd, 
en heeft voor dezen, even als het oosters che, 
onder de Vorsten van Ealij gestaan. De Hoofd- 
plaats ligt aan 't Zuider- strand in eene lage on* 
gezonde streek; afgaande en gal-koortsen heer- 
senen hier het geheele jaar; velen der Ingezete-r 
nen worden daar door weg gesleept, en de mees-? 
te hier aankomende vreemdelingen worden 'et 
van behebt. 

7. Van Poegar maakte ik eene excursie naar 
het oosten tot aan de Dcssa Sabran, niet ver van 
de grens van Blambangan gelegen, van waar ik 
het Zuider-strand bij Batoe-oeloe bezocht; ver- 
volgens nam. ik mijnen weg weer noordelijk, 
door uitgestrekte wouden, naar Djimber. Hier 
is voor omtrcat dertig jaren, weldra na de ver-^ 



ITANJAVA 21 

övering dezer Gewesten, pene sterkte en b^^zet- 
ting der Maatschappij geweest. Do oinleg-gen-» 
de streek is fraai en vruchtbaar, en wordt in 't 
westea door het Ijaiigsche Gebergte, en in 't 
oosten door den Berg Raaiuvong beperkt. De^ 
ze laatste maakt de grcns-sciieiding tusschen 
Pocgar en Biambangan, en is cea ontzaggeiijk 
groot, van *t zuiden naar 't noorden, bijna door 
het geheele Eiland voorüoopend Gebergte, n:aar 
woest, onbel^endj en volgens berigt dsr Ingezete'- 
nen alhier, nog nooit door een* mensch be- 
zocht. 

8. In den omtrek van Djimber en naar den 
voet van het ïjangsche Gebergte, heersdien op 
sommige plaatsen onder de Ingezetenen, Kropge- 
zwellen of Goetre : ook heb ik op m vne reis naar 
den Smeero, en vervolgens op den Teng-ger 
dezelfde ziekte ontmoet, eneenige bemerkingen 
daar omtrent verzameld. Meii is echter hier, 
even zoo weinig als in Europa en elders, in 
staat, om de oorzaak van deze de mensclieljke 
gestalte zoo zeer ontstellende ziekte aantetooncn. 
Zij is niet algemeen, maar tot zekere streken 
bepaald. In een dorp zullen alle de Ingezetenen 
'er mede behebt zijn, daar zij op geen' arooten 
q,fstand, in het geheel niet gevonden wordt; 
gewonelljk wordt dccze ziekte, door dj In- 
voïiers aan het water toegcccbrevcD^ en zij 



*iU. REIS NAAR PE OOSTER'-STRE^EH 



toonen verscbeidene Rivieren aan, die ze als 
seer kwaadaardig in het veroorzaken vaa 

Krcpgezwellen beselioiiwen, 

ïn de lucht kan roen hier de reden daarvan 
niet soeken. war>t door eene verhuizing van 
minder dan een kwartier nurs, naar eene plaats 
op dezelfde hoogte^ en in dezelfde luchtstreel; 
gelegen^ hebben geheele EJorpen 'j[erzelver oor-* 
zaak ontweker^. 

9. Yan Djimber ging ik na-.r Rondo- wosso_, 
eene der Hoofdplaatsen van het Regentschap^ 
Poegarj nabij de grens van Bisoeki en Pana^ 
roekan, m eene uitgebreide vlakte^ tusschen de 
bovensrenoenide ber.^n ereleireii. De bevolkin^r 
dezef;, voor korten tijd, bijna woeste streek, 
groeit jaarlijks door emigrerende Madnresea 
aan; de Landbouw vordert^ en de uitgestrekte 
wonden worden meer en meer in Piantagien, 
R^stvelden en Dorpen veranderd. Op den weg 
Tan Bondo-wosso over Pradjegan (den Ooste- 
lijksten Dessa van dit Regentschap, nabij degrens 
Yan Blambangan ) naar Panaroekan, passeert men 
de uitloopende heuvelen des Bergs Ring-gity 
die voor meer dan twee honderd jaren, (volgens 
Valmtijn) na hevig gebrand te hebben, ingestort 
is ; waar door eene menigte van menschen ea 
dorpen mede verslunden zijn. Deze uitloopende 



VANJAVA #23 

heuvelen he?taan uit Lawa; 6n de, na Tiet in-» 
stormen geblevene, kloof, is nog duidelijk te 
ontwaren, schoon de berg reeds lang te branden 
opgehouden heeft, 

10. In het begin der maand Julij ondernam 
ik de reis van Panaroekan naar Blanibangan. 
Het eerste gedeelte des wegs, omtrent drie uren 
oostelijk van Panaroekan, tot aan de Rivier 
Landangan, gaat door de bebouwde en tot Rijst- 
velden aangelegde streken van dit Regentschap 
heen : hier neemt de weg eene rigting naar het 
Hoorder strand, .het welk eenigèn tij tl gevolgd 
hebbende, dezelve weer zuidelijk voortgaat, door 
eene boschliclitige en met maar weinig Dorpen 
bezette streek, tot aan de Rivier Kali-tikoes, 
die Panaroekan van Eiambangan afscheidt. 
Hier gaat men een woud binnen, dat onafge- 
broken aanhoudt tot naar Sombar-waroe, een 
klein dorpje, uit weinig hnijïj^ezinnen bestaande, 
dat tot verblijf der Reizigers dient. Omtrent 
het midden des wegs van Panaroekan, passeert 
men de bekende Rivier Kali-pocti, wier water 
in den droogen tijd wit of melkachtig, in den 
Regen-Mousson helder en doorschijnend is : in 
het eerst genoemde tijdperk is het redelijk 
«uiver van smaak, en kan zonder nadeel gedron- 
ken worden ; maar wanneer het in den Regentijd 



24 RÈIS NAAR DE OOSTER-STRÉKEI^ 

helder en doorscliijaend is^ heeft het èenea 
"wrangen zamentrekkenden smaak, en is der 
gezondheid nadeelig. Deze Rivier komt uit 
den crater van het in het xuiden gelegene 
Idjengsche Gebergte; io den droogen tijd derzeU 
ver water gering in hoeveelheid zijade, wordt 
het door de, gedurende deszèlfs loop, 'er bijko- 
mende verschillende wateren, 'in aardstofTen ont* 
hokden ; de daarin bevatte Al ü in-aarde, wordt 
door de in de lage landen menigvuldigere 
Kcii kaarde, als een wit neêrplofsel afgescheiden, 
welke (laatste) zich vervolgens met het zwavel 
zuur vereenigt. In den Regentijd het water ia 
grooter hoeveelheid van den crater uitstroomend, 
behoudt het meer deszelfs eigenaardige gesteld- 
heid ; en het daarin zich onthoudende overtollige 
(superahundans) zwavel-zuur, de bijkomende 
aard-deelen oplossende, blijft het helder en 
doorschijnend; uitgedampt zijnde levert het- 
zelve eene hoeveelheid Aluin met onverzadigd 
2wavel-zuur, 

il. Tusschen Somhar-waroe en Badjoel- 
Hiatti is eene woeste streek naauulijks van een 
riviertje doorsneden, en met steenrn en rotsen 
bedekt : de afstand is omtrent negen uren, in 
welke men geen spoor eens raenschelijken ver- 
blijfs,^ of vaa eenige bebouwing, ontmoet. 



VAX JAVA 



23 



Badjoel-miUi dient insgelijks tot eene Rust* 
plaats der Reizigers: van hier heeft men nog 
tien uren naar Banjoe-wangie de Hoofdplaats 
des Regentschaps Blambangan^ alwaar de 
Commandant en de overige tot deze volkplanting 
behoorige Dienaren hun verblijf hebben. 

12. Na eenen togt van meer dan twintig uren^ 
door eene bijna anafgebroken Woestijn^ wordt 
men bij het naderen dezer Hoofdplaats, op het 
aangenaamste verra§cht; dezelve is aan het uit- 
einde des Eilands, langs deszelfs Oostersch 
strand, in een Landschap gelegen, van het eerst 
gepasseerde zeer afstekend. Van het groote Id- 
jengsche Gebergte, zacht naar Zee- strand af- 
bellend, met eene fleurige bosschaadje begroeid^ 
en menigvuldig van water-rijke Rivieren door- 
sneden, bezit de streek een voordeel van ligging 
en de grond eene vruchtbaarheid, die in ^een 
gedeelte des Eilands overtroffen, in weinige ge« 
ëvenaard wordt. Behalve dit dienen de omlig- 
gende onderv/erpen, om de situatie in allen op- 
zigt te verfraaijen. Het Idjengsche Gebergte^ 
\erheft zich met versclieidengrootsche toppen, in 
het Westen dezer Hoofdplaats, en in het Oosten 
yertoont zich, achter eene fraaije Zeeengte een 
groot gedeelte van het Westelijke uiteinde des Ei- 

D 



^6 REIS NAAE DE OOSTEK-STREKE!* 

lands BdVïj lo den oemiddelijken omtrek de^ 
zer Ffoofdplaats, heeft men eene aanzienlijke 
uitgestrektheid grond gezuiverd, en tot de be- 
noodigde kultuiir van Rijst, en de teelt van ver* 
seheidene Producten, gereed gemankt, het overi- 
ge gedeelte van Blambangan is grootstendeels 
met woud ea bosschaadje bedekt, in welke echter 
merHSTViildiore. schoon kleine neerlatinoren aan2:e- 
legd zyn. Bjzonders ontmoet men, langs dea 
weg naar de voormalige Residentie bj de Bogt 
van Oeloepampang> en in den omtrek der aloude: 
Hoofdplaats van dit Regentschap^ Koetta Blaru- 
bangan genaamd^ menigvuldige Dorpen. 

13. In dit tot mijne nasporingen voordeelig ge* 
legen Landschap, besteedde ik de maanden Julij 
en Augustus ter voortzetting derzelve: behalve 
vele excursien, door de toegankelijke gewesten, 
der ommcstreken der Hoofdplaats, in alle rigtin» 
gen, heb ik eene naar het Idjengsche Gebergte, 
en den daarop gelegenen volkaanschen Crater, 
ondernomen; en eene andere over Matjan-poeti^ 
Banjoe alit en de oude Koetta Blambangan^ 
naar de voormalige Hoofdplaats en sterkte van 
dit Regentschap Oeloe pampang, gedaan; en 
van daar den Berg Soemboeloengan, ook Goe- 
noeng Ikan genoemd, bezocht. En ik kan met 
waarheid betuigen, dat geen deel van Java, mij 



y A N JAT -4 2^ 

in hetzelfde tijdperk, eenen zoo rijkelijk 'H oogst 
verschaft heeft ; waarvan ik iii mijne verz'rimeling 
\:an gedroogde Phmten, en de op Banjoe-vvaiigi^ 
vervaardigde afbeeldingen, de bewijzen aaa 't 
Genootschap hoop te zullen kunnen aanbieden. 

I>e. uitgestrekte wonden van Blanibangan be- 
vatten vele Boomen, Heesters en Planten, die in 
andere Gewesten des Eilands maar zelden ge«- 
Tonden worden ; sommige schijnen aan 't Oos* 
tersche uiteinde van Java eii^ea te zijn ; andere 
zijn door den gevorderden s^raad van bebou- 
wing, en door het uitroeijen der bo&schen, in de 
Westeüike Deelen verKieti«\l of vetRiiiiderd, 
De meeste op andere Plaatsen gevondene Ge- 
neeskundige Planten^ worde^i ook hier ontmoet; 
belialve eenige weinige^ die alïeea in dit Re« 
gentschap voortgebragt worden^ 

14. Gedurende mijne versehillende excursi* 
en, b«n ik in de gelegenheid geweest den bernchten 
Javaanschen of Makassaarschen Giftboom, ge= 
woonlïjk PoJion O cp as genoemd^ (wiens fiibel* 
achtige Beschrijving door Foer§cb, in een der 
Deelen van 't B.ataviaasch Genootschap uitge- 
g-even, wederlegd is,) in deszelfs geboorte 
plaatste ontmoeten ; en met het, door de Blam- 
bamgansche Javanen, uit het sap dcses Boonis^ 
Ijonstig geprepiireeid Gift^ verscheiden proevea 



28 RRÏS NAAR DE O O S T^ R-S T R E K E N 

te doen, en de ware eigenschap en werking de- 
zer schadelijke zelfstandigheid^ waar van men 
tot nog toe, niet alleen in Europa, maar ook in 
deze Gewesten, ve-rkeerde denkbeelden en be- 
rigten gehad heeft, kennen te leerer?, te onder-* 
zoeken en vele Daadzaken en Benserkiiigen, tot 
eene naauwkeorige opheldering, te verzanielea, 
Deze Boom wordt hier Antjar genoemd. Vaa 
een ander klimmend heestergewa,s, dat Tjittik 
heet, wordt door de Javanen dezes Landschap» 
eene nog veel schadelijker en gevaarlijker GiïU 
sloffe bereid, wier uitwerking op het dier lijk 
iigchaam, die der vergiftigste slangen te bo'* 
ven gaato 

15e Daar ik echter aaïi2:aande de onder wer-* 
pen der Kruidkunde in 't algemeen en der Ge- 
neeskundige Planten bijzonder, zoo wel als aan- 
gaande alle onderwerpen mijner oplettendheid 
en nasporing, bij het voleindigen mijaer Reis, 
een mogelijkstnaau'.v keurig Berigt opmaken zal, 
zoo zal ik thans daaromtrent niet verder uitwij- 
den, ik heb alleenlijk een kort uitzigt van de 
Gesteldheid, der gedurende de laatste maanden 
bezochte Landschappen des Oosthoeks getracht 
te geven; naardien verscheidene tot mijne naspo- 
ringen voordeelig geweest zijn, en ui'jiie aau* 
dacht lang aangetrokkca hebben» 



VAN JAVA. £? 

16. Het onderzoek der voornaamste Geberg- 
ten, heb ik onafgebroken voortgezet : die gene 
die in den Oosthoek de groot Midden-keten van 
Java voortzetten, zijn volgende : De Berg 
Jledjoeno, tusseben, en gedeeltelijk in de Re- 
gentschappen, Piissoeroewang, Malang en Dja- 
pan gelegen; de Berg Kawijy in 't Zuiden vaa 
den laatsten tusseben Malang, Seringat en Kadiri ; 
de Smeer o en Teng-ger tusseben Malang en La 
Madjmg; de Berg La Mongan in Banger; de 
Berg Tjang, tusseben Banger en Poegar; de 
Berg Reng-git in Paüaroekan; de Berg Racni-» 
V)ong tusseben Poegar en Blarabangan ; en ein- 
delijk bet Idjengsclie Gebergte, aan 't verste 
Oostelijke einde van Java, uit verscheiden afzon- 
derlijke toppen bestaande. 

17. In 't begin der maand September, mij 
ter terug- reis schikkende, werd ik van de eigen- 
aardige Endemische koorts, der omraestrekea 
van Banjoe-Wangie aangegrepen, die mij na 
cenen allerhevigstea aanval, van alle krachten en 
werkzaamheid beroofde. Eerst in 't begin vaa 
October was ik instaat, om naar Passoeroewang 
terug te keeren, alwaar mij de gevolgen der 
ziekte, eene slepende koorts en verharding der 
milt (of Koek) tot 'm 't midden van November 
bij bleveUo 



30 REÏS NAAR -BE OOSTEE-STEEKEN 

18, Sedert mijn berstel heb ik io '(: begin der 
maasid December^ weder eene reis naar 't Teng;« 
fersche Gebergte^ (waarvan ik in mijn laatst 
Ben'o't eeoe korte schets aan 't Genootscbao «:e* 
geven heb) gedaan; en van de daar groeijende 
Geneeskundige Planten^ eene verzameling tot 
proeven en aanwending op Batavia, gemaakt; 
0ok heb ik ten gelijken einde, de Geneeskundige 
Flanten der omu^estrekeu van Passoeroewang 
verzameld. 

lo 't begin der maand Januarij (A. C. ) heb 
ik het Regentscha.p Malang, en de omliggende 
Gewesten^ bezocht ; waarop ik den derden Fe* 
bruarg naar Soerabaija terug gekeerd ben. 

19. Alhier ben ik thans bezig om verscheiden 
onvoleindigde onderwerpen^ een weinig in orde 
te stellen : ook veieischt het nazien en bewaren 
der gedurende mijne Reis verzamelde Medicij- 
nen, Gedroogde Planten en Dieren, die in dit 
klimaat aan schielijk bederf onderhevig zijn^ 
eene aanhoudende oplettendheid^ om dezelve 
in een* goeden staat van bewaring over te bren^ 
gen. Vele gedurende mijoe Heis met potlood 
«cetcekende Planten, laat ik thans met Chine-» 
schen inkt uitwerken. Het algemeen Getal der 
Teekeningen is sedert mijn laatst Berigt raet 
eene groote Ceoturie vermeerderd geworpen. 



TANJAVA SI 

SO. Ik heb alleenlijk bij fc voegen^ dat bet 
mijn voornemen is, ten eerste, na het veranderea 
der Mousson, de terugreis aantenemen ; eene goe- 
de scheeps gelegenheid zoude tot overbrenging 
mijner verzameling het voordeeligste M'ezen, 
maar dewijl ik daar omtrent thans niet met 
zekerheid bepalen kan, zoo zal ik naar tijds- 
omstandigheden, in de aanstaande maand April 
of Mei, over land of over zee, te rug keeren. 

Ten besluit beveel ik mij zeer ernstig in de 
voortdurende genegenheid van Geachte Heeren^ 
Dirigerende Leden van het Bataviaasch Genoot- 
schap, en teeken mij met gevoelens van ware 
iioog-achting. 

Wel Edele zeer Geachte Heeren ? 
Uw Wel Eclelens, 
SoERAnAiJk,\ Gehoorzame Dienaar, 

den 2Sste FebS THOMAS HORSFIELD^ 

i807. 



V. 



BEKNOPTE BESCHRYVING 

VAN HET 

CRIJ^UM ASIATICUM. 

DOOR 
TH. RORSFIELD, PvIed. Doct. 

Beknopte Gcnees-en Scheikundige Beschrijving 

van het Cr in urn asiaticum Linnaei, of 

het Bakoeng der Inlander s, zoowel der 

Javanen als der M al dj er s. 



'eze soort wordt van de andere soorten dezes 
Geslachts onderscheiden, door Bladen die in het 
midden gekield zijn, Linnaeus beschrijft ze als 
Criniim ,^folils carinntis". Spec. Plant. p. 419. 
Rumphius noemt ze Radix toxicaria, Herb. 
anib. 61 & 69. Het geslacht behoort, volgens 
Botanische vervrantschap, onder de Spathaceae 
(Bloemsteng-dragende) weike klasse eenige an» 
dere werkzame planten bevat. 

Reeds in myn berigt van December 1812, 
merkte ik de braking- makend e eigenschap van 
dit Geslacht in 't algemeen aan ; sedert, heb ik 
op deze soort (het asiaticum) bijzondcrlijk ge* 

A 



B BEKNOPTE BESCHRIJVING 

ht; en de verzamelde narigten bevatten volgen 
de hoofdstukken. 



1. Eenige zelfsgemaakte proeven, die de 

toerking dezer wortel, bijzonder! ijk op de Maag, 
aantoonen. 

2. E ene kof te Scheikundige ontleding ; 

S. Eenige aanhalingen van Riimphius^ aan- 
gaande derzelver w^erking en gebraik. 

ï. — Proeven;, toonende de werking van 't Cri- 
ncm asiatfcum. 

§ 1. Ik bereidde een aftreksel van eene onee 
Tan den bolacbtigen wortel, n^et zes oneen ge- 
wonen wijn-azijn; den zevenden Julij, des mor- 
gens om negen uven, na twee uren te voren een 
ligt ontbijt van knfFj met beschuit gebruikt te 
Is ebben, narrt ik txvee drachm n van dit aftrek- 
sel: vijf minuten daarna, bad ik sterke opris- 
pingen van lucht uit de masg, in vijftien minu- 
ten voelde ik roij zeer walgelijk, en terstond 
volgde een hevig braken waardoor de maag ge- 
lieei uitgeleegd werd : het walgelijk gevoel duur- 
de nog een half uur, waarop een anderraalig 
braken volgde, waardoor slechts het gedronken 
water opgebragt werd. — Na verloop van eenige 
uren, bad zich de onaangename aandoening ia 
de maag verloren. ( llci is aantcmerken, dat 



V/INHET CeiNüMASIATICüM. 3 

deze uitledigiug der maag zoo voikornen geweest 
is, als ik ze ooit van eea braak-middel gehad 
heb, en dat de onaangename gevoelens minder 
schenen, dan die, welke de werking dei: A^iunO" 
niaal middelen verzeilen ) 

§ 2. Door deze voorafgaande proeve, vp.n het 
braakvermogen dezer wortel zoo wel, als vaa 
de onnadeelige werking derzelve overtuigd 
zijnde, werd de proeve op een sterk t subject, 
en in grootere hoeveelheid herliaald — Na de gift 
eener halve ouce volgde sterke v/alging, en na 
vermeerdering der gift tot eeae once, herhaalde- 
lijk braken; en binnen den tijd van zes uren, 
volgden drie ontlastingen des baiks. In drie 
andere gevallen, werd door eene once dezes 
azijas, in verdeelde giften braken verwekt, 

jianm: De azijn ontbindt de werkzame doelen dezer 
wortel mogelijk boter dan eenig aader vocht; het estract, 
en zelfs de rersche wortel «-erken niet soo oogenbükkelijk, 
schoon het kaauwen der wortel en het iiizwclgea des saps 
(als aoor Rumphius beuedea getoond v/ordt) krachtige uiU 
ledigende gevolgen a^di. 

IL — Beknopte scheikundige ontleding. 

1, Twee oneen der wortel van het Crlnnni 
asiaticum veerden 'm eenen kolf der destillatie 
blootgesteld ; het overgehaalde water toondegea- 
tie vlugge deekn, was volkomeu doorschijnead^ 



4 BEKNOPTE BESCHRIJVING 

en van gcwooa gedestilleerd water niet onder- 
scheiden, 

2. Het overblijfsel ia den kolf, was van 

bruinachtig roode kleur; het werd by herha- 
ling met gedestilleerd water uitgekookt, en dqi 
gemengde afkooksels tot een extract uitgewa- 
semd, welk zeven drachmen woog: dit extract 
was kleverig van zelfstandigheid, van bruin- 
achtige kleur, en van bittcrachtigen, walgelij- 
ken (doch niet zeer sterken) smaak (De bijzon- 
dere uitvverkilig en gift daar van, z jn nog te 
beproeven. ) 

De gedroogde uitgetrokkene wortel woog 
zeven drachmen. ( Het verlies van twee drachmen 
in deze bewerkingen, is aan het uitgewasemde, 
in de nog niet volkomen gedroogde wortel be- 
vatte, water, toeteschrijven. ) 

S. Het gedroogde overblijfsel der wortel 
(wegend zeven drachmen) werd met twaalf 
oneen alcohol overgoten; welk echter zoo^wel 
door de kleur als door den smaak geene verdere 
oplosselijke deelen aantoonde, het scheen als had 
het veater alle opneembare deelen aangetrokken. 

Aanm: De beste Pharmaccutische Bereiding is het 
aftreksel met azijn, -vvaartoe een zesde gedeelte der hoeyeel- 
heid, gcvFone wijngeest kan gevoegd worden, om het 
schimmelen der slijraige Tloeiistof te beletten. 



VAN II ET CRINUM ASIATICXJM. 5 

III — Van het zeer wijdloopige, met vele 

Historische en Plaatselijke aanmerkingen 

vermengde narigt van Rumphias^ is het vol- 



gende het voornaamste ; 



1. ''Ddt, deze wortel, krachtig is om sterke 
braking te maken^ zonder hitte of scherpheid, 
maar alleen met eene walgelijke^ doch niet 
groote bitterheid/* 

2. '"^ Dat zij de edele eigenschap heeft, om 
het ingenomen venijn met geweld 'liit den lijve 
te jagen, en op de wonden gelegd^ het zelve 
daar uit te zuigen/' 

3. " Dat het ingezwolgen sap der gckaauw» 

de wortel een krachtig middel geweest is (in 

den vijfden Amboinscben Oorlog, van 't jaar 

1651.) om die genen, welke door de pijlen der 

Makassaren, die met een bijzonder gift (der 

Arbor toxicaria Rumphii ) waren aan gestreken 

en onder de Soldaten veel onheil aanrigteden, 

gekwetst geworden waren, van de verderfelijke 

gevolgen derzelven te bevrijden en te genezen. 

" Op het kaauwen volgt dadelijk een sterk bra- 

'^ ken, zweeten en arbeiden, waar door het 

" venijn uitgedreven wordtj en zoo de zware 

'' duizeligheid of draaijinge in 't hoofd conti- 

y nueert^ zoo moet men dat werk hervatten &c/' 



^ BEKNOPTE BESCHEIJYiNa 

4. '' IViresis de b^ten van Duizendbeenen en 
Bleken van Schorpioenen, als ook tegeos gezwol- 

ieo Buiken wordt de sap ing-ezwolgen, ea de 
gekneusde wortel van buiten^ op de zieke deelea 



legi 



'' Iïu7nvhü Herb : Amb : XI. Boek XLV. 
ïiOüfdsttik^ art: Radix toxicaria/^ 



VI. 

BESCH-UYYIH'G 

VAN DEN 

G AT 1 F ' B O 

DOOR 
THOMAS HORSFIELD, Med. Dr. 



ET Geslacht van dezen Boom \Yerd door 
Forster Qevii beschreven; Char : Gen: SS: het- 
zelve is ook bevat onder de nieuwe Geslachten, 
door Thiinberg v/aargenonien^ 7'k'inh : nov : Gen: 
45. De kenmerken worden in het Sij^tema na- 
tu rae bepaald : Cal 2filus. Oor. infundihuU^ 
forniis Stamina serie duplïcL Driipa ! sperma. 

De uitvoerige beschrijving van het Geslacht, 
zoo als ik hetzelve te Batavia waargenomen 
heb, isj als voigt : 

Calix — -Perianthium monopefalum, blfidura^ 
coloralum ; laciniarum margo subseariosus. 

Corolla monopetala infundibuh'formis, tnbus 
brevis (longitudine calicis) qninqulfidns : La- 
ciiiiaej liniares, longae, reflcxac, autsubcontortac. 

A 



$ ' BESCHEÏJVÏNGVAN- 

" Stamïna — Filamenta d«cem quorum quin- 
que longiora^ quinque reliqua brevissima. (sae- 
prus sunt octo, quorum quatuor longiora, inter- 
dum, flumero kid^finito (a 5 — 7) et longitudiae 
irregulari.) 

jintherae ereetiusculae, didijmae; 

Pistillum Germen super um^ erectura, oblon* 
gum hirsutum : stijlus nullus ; stigma acutum, 
sub-incurvum, (pilosumj. 

PerLcurpium — Drupa conipresso-emarginata 
{aui reniformis) coriacea^ sicca, riionolocularis. 

Seinen — ^^Nux, (forma drupae) superücie 
striata. 

De Kelk--^een eenbladig bloem vlies^ in twee* 
en gedeeld^ geverwd ; de rand der lapjens droog» 
ashtig. 

Be BloemJcroon eenbladig trecbtervormig; de 
Buis kort ( van de lengte des kelks) in vijven ge- 
deeld: de Insnijdingen lijnvormig, lEug, terug- 
gekromd, of een weinig gedraaid. 

De Helmstijlfjes—iien Meeldraadjes, waar- 
van vijf langer, de anderen vijf zeer kort zijn. 
(.Dikwijls sfjir^er acbt, waarvan vier langer, 
somtijds is het getal onbestemd (van 5 — 7) ea 
van ongeregelde lengte. ) 



D E N G A T I P - B o o M. 3 

De Meelknopjeshijns. regtöpstaande, dubbeld. 

De Stijl-^hei VrucJitbeginsel boven^ regtöp- 
staande langwerpig, harig ; bet Stampertje ont- 
breekt; het merk spitS;, eenweinig gekromd, (h2t- 

Het Zaaclhuisje-^ttne pruim vrucht, platach- 
tig uitgerand (of niereiivormig) leerachtig', 
droog met ééne holligheido 

Het Zaad — eene noot, van gedaante ak Iset 
zaadhuisje, de oppervlakte gestreept. 

Forster noemt dezen boom „ Inocarpiis edulis 
en beschrijft hem dus: een hooge boom op de 
Zuid-zee- Eilanden ; de vrucht is eene nieren- 
Tormige, zamengedrukte noot, zij v/ordt van de 
Eilanders geroost, gegeten: De Europeanen 
aten ze als kastanjen, maar vonden se minder 
aangrnaam van smaak, en voor eenen zv^akken 
maag, uit hoofde der harde weinig meelis:e zelfr 
standigheid, niet zeer verteerbaar.'* (Uit het 
Hoogduitsch van G. Forster. ) De 0-taheiti- 
sche naam der vrucht is Rcttta, welke met GattCj 
(zoo als deze 'boom hier ook genoemd wordt) 
van denzeifden oorsprong kan afgeleid worden. 

Ook door Rumphius wordt een boom onder 
den naa.m Gaj^nus bcsclireyea, die tol dit gje- 



é BESCHRIJVING VAN 

slacht behoortj en wiens vruchten en schors mee 
die Yan onzen Gatip-boora in eigenschappen 
overeenkomen. De Afbeelding in het Araboin- 
&che Kruidboek \erschiit een weinig in de ge- 
daante der bladen, en in de trossen die de bloe- 
men en vrnchten ondersteunen; de bcvrucatings 
deelen zijn niet kenbaar beschreven ea voorge- 
steld. 

In de Oostersche deelen van Java v/ordt deze 
■boom ook Gajang genoemd. 

Beschrijving des Boorn^. 

De stam des Gatip-hooms is regt opstaande, 
iiieerendeels tien of twaalf voeten hoog, van bui- 
ten orïëffen, knobbelig of r(^nd-hoekig-gegroefd : 
hij schijnt in 't gemeen uit meerdere verscheide- 
ne stammen opgemaakt te zijn, die te zamenge- 
drukt oprijzen. De wortelen loopen van den 
5tam ( en deszelfs hoeken) schuins ia de ag-rde; 
somtijds worden zij nog eenige voeten met de- 
zelve parallel ioopende gezien. 

De schors der jonge boomen is witachtig 
graan w, die der oule donker-kleurig en meer 
of min gegroefd: dezelve is van een rood kleve- 
rig: zjmenfrekkend sap doordrongen, 't geen na 
insnijdingen *er uit vloeit, en zich in glinsterende 
druppels aanzet. In de gedroogde schors tooai; 



DENGATIP^BOOM. O 

dit g'omaclitig sap zich aan het afgebrokene of 
gesnedene einde; hetzelve wordt in verscheidene 
boomen in verscheidene hoeveelheid verkregen—- 
Na de Regentijd vloeit hetzelve het menigvul- 
digst: het is in water oplosselijk en deelt aan 
hetzelve eene verzadigde roode kleur mede.-— 
( Des zelfs hoedanigheden als een zamentrekkend 
Geneesmiddel zullen^ na 't verhaal der scheikun- 
dige ontleding der schors, aangetoond worden.) 
De Gatip-boom de hoogte van omtrent 10 of 12 
voeten bereikt hebbende, verdeelt zich in eenige 
weinige sterke takken, die schuins opstijgen, en 
kleinere iets bogtige takken afzenden^ die zich 
ïiiaar weinig verspreiden, en eene kroon vormen, 
van rondachtig, somtijds van cijlindrisch-hoog- 
r ijzende gedaante^ die vau buiten rijkelijk met 
loof bekleed is. 

Aan de jonge r ijsjes, die tegf^n den buiten- 
kring der kroon, lang, dun en afhangend zijn, 
komen de bladen voort :. zij staan overhoeks, 
hebben eenen korten, dikken, vleesachtigen, iets 
gedraaiden steel, en zijn op beide zijden glad, 
beneden tusschen de ribben fijn, nets- wijs ge- 
aderd, van dunne leer-acht ige zelfstandigheid, 
langwerpig-eivormig, aan 't einde stomp afge- 
rond of ongeregeld uitgerond, en de volwassenen, 
tien tot twaalf duimen lang, en drie tot vier dui- 



6 BïiSCHRrJVIl^rGrVAN 

men % reed. Aan de ion2:e rii^ies, ziin, meeren- 
tieels de bladen tegenover de bloem-trossen ge- 
plaatst; zeldener komen zij uit de houtachtige 
deel en der takken of des stams zei ven voort : de- 
2:e trossen hebben eenen gemeenen boutachtigen 
«teel, diïe. in eenige dunne ongeregelde vleescbige 
takjes verdeeld is, waaraan de kleine, licht-gele, 
trechtervormige bloemtjes zeer digt in 't rond 
geplaatst zijn. ( De grooteren dezer trossen zijn 
8 tot 10 duimen lang. en bestaan uit vele^ dik- 
wijls 20 tot 30 ondergeschikte takjes, die vele 
ïionderden van bloemptjes ondersteunen ) 

De bloenPien hebben «enen sterken, zoeten, 
zich v/ijd door de lucht verspreidenden reuk ; zij 
jsijn van korden duur^ en vierentwintig uren na 
hare verschijning^ al te maal afgevallen^ wanneer 
de voet des booms als besneeuwd is. Zij ver- 
schijnen ie^en het einde des droogen, en in 't 
begin des regen-moussons^ aan verschillende boo- 
jnen op verschillende tijden. — Uit het groot ge- 
tal der bloemen blijft maar hier en daar een en- 
keld vruchtbcqrinsei banenen, om ó^ïe, in 't <re- 
slacht beschrevene^ noot voort te brengen. Des:e 
Noten worden van de Javanen, en de Inlanders 
in 't gemeen, met graagte gt^eiftn, en gekookt, 
als eene zeer smakelijke spijs beschreven, zij ziju 
iïieelachti<>: en zoet. 



DEXGATÏ?-B90Rf. J 

Deze boom wordt, in den omtrek van Batavia^ 
2eer gemeen langs de wegen^ en nabij de hnizen 
der Inlanders aangetroffen. Hij vereischt eene 
\eiie, zwarte, een weinig vochti2:e tuin-aarde.— 
Binneirs lands (in Jakatraen de Preanger-lan- 
den ten minste) wdrdt hij niet gevonden, en 
waarscbijiielijk i& hij van elders overgebragt* 
Hij behoort te huis op de Eilanden der Zuid- 
Zee (des groeten stillen Oceaans) op de Moluk- 
kische, en overige teH oosten van Java liggende 
Eilanden. Het eerste narigt van de krachten en 
hoedanigheid der schors dezes booras werd mij 
door den Heer J. Ekenholra, medegedeeld. 

En dewijl, bij nader onderzoek^ de zamen- 
trekkende eigenschappen^ en het waarschijnelij- 
ke nuttig geneeskundig gebruik, zich duidelijk 
vertoonden, zoo verkoos ik ètzeise voor een on- 
derwerp van naauwkeurige scheikundige ontle- 
ding. — Na dat het grootste gedeelte der volgende 
proeven geëindigd was, viel mij toevallig, de 
boven aangehaalde beschrijving van Professor 
G. Forster, in har.den ; ik had het Geslacht te 
voren als nieuw beschouwd. 

ScheikiiJidigc Ontleding, 

Proeve ï. Eene halve oxice der Gatip- 
schors, werd met twaalf oiicen alcohol acht ca 



& B E g C H R ï J V ï N G VA N 

veertig uren getrokken, en dikwijls omgescliiid : 
de Tinctuur was van fraaije hoog-roode kleur; 
het tweede aftreksel was minder geverwd, en het 
derde zander kleur. Deze aftreksels gemengd 
zijnde hadden eenen sterken, niet onaangenamen 
Zamentrekkenden smaak, die zonder alle bitter- 
heid was. In de oplo&sing des Yzer vitriools 
maakten eenige druppels eene menigvuldige zwar- 
te neêrplofüing. Omtrent zeven-achtste gedeelte 
des "Wijri-geests werd in eenerr kleinen krombals 
afgehaald, en op het overgeblevene voch*, walk 
klaar en doorschijnend gebleven was, eenige 
oneen gedestilleerd water gegoten ; *er zonderden 
zich de Harsdeelen in fijne, schil fertj es af, die 
gedroogd, vijf en twintig greinen v/ogen, Dezo 
hars bestaat uit donkerbruine, gekrulde, glinste- 
rende blaadjes: uit het overgeblevene vocht, wer- 
den nog vijftien greinen extract-achtige stof ver- 
kregen. — Het overblijfsel vï'oog drie en eene hal- 
ve drachme. 

Proeve IÏ. Eene once der schors werd bij 
herhaling met gedestilleerd water uitgekookt, 
Pïet eerste afkooksel was donker rood van kleur, 
en van sterken maar zuiver-zam'^ntrekkenden 
smaak — In de oplossing des Yzer- vitriools ver- 
oorzaakte het eene donkere neerplofiiüg, dié zich 
iu zwarlaehtige vlokken afscheidde. De over- 



ÖENGATIP^BOOM. ^ 

blijvende gedroogde schors had aan gewigt eene 
drachme verloren. 

Proeve III. De verscheidene aftreksels (der 
laatste Proeve) werden gemengd, en in gematig- 
de warmte uitgewasemd; zij leverden eene ea 
eene halve drachme extract, van donker -bruine 
kleur en korrelige zelfstandigheid^ welke met 
harsachtige glinsterende blaadjes vermengd was. 

Proeve IV. Om de nadere bestand-deelea 
des Extracts daarteleggen, werd deze en de voU 
gende twee proeven daargesteld. 

Het door de ïllde Proeve verkregene Extract, 
wegend eene ea ee^e halve drachme^ werd, in 
gedestilleerd water opgelost zijnde, met vier 
drachmen salpeter-zuur gekookt. Na dat de, 
zich menigvuldig ontwikkelende salpeter lucht 
ophield, wierd de vloeistofie doorgezijgd en op 
een' kouden oord neêrgesteld. — De onopgelost te- 
rug blijvende stoffe, welke harsachtig was, woog 
vijftien greinen. In de vloeistoffe zonderden zich^ 
na eenige dagen, gele kristallen af, die de ge* 
daante en eigenschappen des suiker-zuurs beza- 
ten, en aan gewigt bijna eene drachme bedroegen. 

Proeve V. Het Extract eener once der 
schors (eeae en eene halve drachme) werd met 

B 



10 BESCHRIJ.VÏNGVAH 

eene toereikende hoeveelheid gedestilleerd water 
opgelost, en zoo veel zeer zuivere Wijngeest toe- 
gevoegd, als noodig scheen eene afzondering of 
neêrploffiing der jout-deelen te bewerken ; de 
vloeistofie gefiltreerd zijnde werd gedeeltelijk 
uitgewasemd ; zij had eenen sterken zoutachti- 
gen smaak, maar dewijl de si ij mi ge deelen, de 
kristailizatie beletteden^ 200 werd de volgende 
vproeve gemaakt. 

Proeve VI. Eene en eene halve drachm« 
Extract werden in eenen smelt-kroes gedaan^ en 
door een hevig vuur, alle extract-en slijm-deelen 
yerbrand : Het overblijfsel woog twaalf 2:rei- 
nen, zorgvuldig met gedestilleerd water uitge* 
löogd zijnde, bleven vijf greinen onopgelost. De 
vloeistolFe werd tot het punt der kristailizatie 
uitgedampt en bijgezet; *er zonderden zich, na 
eenige dagen, zes greinen bladerig zout af, welk 
het vocht des dampkrings aantrok, het blaauwe* 
bloemen papier in groen, het curcuma-papier in 
bruin, en het sapp-an papier in paars veranderde, 
met verdund salpeter-zuur opbruiste, en verza* 
digd zijnde lanüjwerpige kristallen aanzette, die 
op brandende kolen opploften, en den mond het 
gevoel van koude verwekten, en alle eigenschap- 
pen van salpeter bezaten. Dit blader ige zout, 
was dus zuiver planteu-loogzout. 



t)EN GATïP-BOOM. 11 

Proeve VII. Het na de bewerking met 
wijngeest en water onopgeloste overblijfsel, van 
twee oneen der schors, welk veertien drachmen 
woog, werd in eenen smelt-kroes verbrand ; de 
terug blijvende asch woog een en vijftig greinen : 
met gedestilleerd water uitgeloogd zijnde ble- 
ven zes en veertig greinen over. De uitgedampte 
vloeistoüe leverde eenige greinen planten loog- 
zout, en omtrent twee greinen eenes zouts ia 
kristallen, welk de vorm en den smaak van Di^ 
gestief-zout had. 

Proeve VIIÏ. De zes en veertig greinen ( in 
de laatste Proeve) van de uitgeloogde asch over*^ 
blijveud, werden met zes oneen gedestilleerden 
azijn gekookt. Het door filtrer ing zorgvuldig af- 
gezonderde, onopgeloste restant, woog gedroogd 
20 greinen, en uit de vloe^ftoffe werden door het 
vaste planten loog-zout vijf eotwintig greinen 
aarde neêrgeploft, d'ie de eigenschappen eener 
zuivere kalk-aarde bezat. 

Proeve IX. Het aardachtige overblijfsel 
(na de behandeling met azijnzuur) werd met 
verdund zwavelzuur overgoten, en der hitte 
blootgesteld: na dat de oplosselijke deelen uit- 
getrokken waren, werd het restant afgezonderd : 
in de met gedestilleerd water verdunde vloeistof- 
fe toonde zich, door het blaauwzure Lopgzout 



12 BES C H R ÏJ V I N G VAK 

(Prussias Potassae) éene geringe hoeveelheid 
Yzer^, wier gewigt omtrent een half grein be- 
droeg. Door het planten*loogzout M^erd de 
aluin- aar de in fyne vlokjes neêrgeploft, die door 
het aanwezige ijzer hruinacbtig geverwd waa'en. 
De onöplosselijke aarde (wegend tien greinen) 
werd met vast planten-looo^zout gemengd, in 
eenen kleinen kroes in een hevig vuur gegloeid, 
zij vloeide daarmede in eene harde scoria te za* 
men, en was dus Kiezel-aarde. 

De Geneeskundige eigenschappen der schors 
dezes booms zijn eenvoudig en in 't oog vallend ; 
zij is een zuiver, maar niet krachteloos zamen- 
trekkend middel. De beste wijze om dezelve 
aantewenden, is ia een versch bereid, sterk ea 
volkomen verzadigd afkooksel ; dit afkooksel 
bevat eene slijmige Zelfstandigheid, waardoor 
de zamentrekkende hoedanigheid ondersteund 
wordt. Het Extract en het Hars, zijn beiden 
minder aangenaam en werkzaam. In meerdere 
gevallen van Buik-loop, waar zwakte der vaten 
der ingewanden, zonder ontsteking (of vermeer- 
derde werking) plaats had, heb ik eene goede 
uitwerking daarvan waargenomen. 

Een verzadigd uittreksel dezer schors, met 
eene toereikende hoeveelheid der bladen des (el- 
ders beschrevenen) Ki-monjenjeas, eener soort 



iJÊNGATIP-BOOM. I 



o 



Brncea, gemengd, levert een werkzaam^ bitter- 
zamentrekkend Geneesmiddel. 

Door Riunphiiis wordt aangaande het genees- 
kundig gebruik des Gatip-booms aangemerkt: 
y, de schors dezes booms, (met die van de Lin- 
goa-boom) in water gekookt^ geeft een' goeden 
drank voor de genen die gaan of vast zijn aan 
den rooden Buikloop, en wordt dit hulpmiddel 
in 'i Amboinsche Ziekea-hnis veel gebruikt" 
Rumph. I. p. 171* 



to^WMMaiie<MF 



SCHEIKUNDIGE ONTLEDING 

DER VRUCHTEN VAN DEN 
^APINDUS SAPONARIA, VAN LINNAEUS, 

DOOR 

THOMAS FIORSFIELD, Med. Dr. 

Inleiding, 

JOê Rarak of Zeep-boom wordt bij Linnaeus 
Sapindus Saponaria genoemd : onder de bena- 
ming van Saponaria wordt dezelve ook beschre- 
vedoor Rumphius, door Bnrman, (in den The» 
saurus Zeijlanicus) en door van Rbeede. 

De Kruidkundige Beschrijving', en het nutti- 
ge huishoudelijke gebruik der Vruchten dezes 
boomsj zijn algemeen bekend ; maar dewijl die, 
in het zaadhuisje bevatte, eigenaardige zelfstan- 
digheid, die alle hoedanigheden eener volkomen 
zeep bezitj nog nooit genoegzaam onderzocht 



2 SCHEIKUNDIGE ONTLEDING 

is, of derzelyer bestand-deelen daargelègd z'ja 
geworden, zoo werd dezelve^ aan de volgende 
scheikundige ontleding, blootgesteld. 

Het Zaadhuisje (de Vrucht) dezes Booms is 
eene Drupa of Pruim-vrucht van ronde gedaan- 
te^ wier oppervlakte van buiten een weinig bultig 
en met zachte verheffingen geschakeerd is^ die 
met eene glanzende opperhuid bedekt zijn : Zij 
is een weinig grooter dan een gewone musket- 
kogel ; en dewijl, volgens het getal der Vrucht- 
beginsels^ des rangs Trigijnia, gewoonlijk drie, 
(zeldener twee) bij malkander voortgebragt 
worden, zoo zijn zij^ aan het punt der vereeni- 
ging^ een weinig platachtig ofte zamen gedrukt» 

Als deze Pruim-vrücht doorgesneden wordt, 
200 toont zich de schil als een vleesachtig hul-of 
deksel, een tiende en somtijds een achtste gedeelte 
\an een' duim in diameter: dit hulsel is ook van 
binnen met eene gladde, glanzende huid belegd, 
die een weinig dikker dan de buitenste, horenach- 
tig, en doorschijnend is. Beiden laten zich door 
niaceratie afzonderlijk daarstellen. 

Tusschen het binnen-en buitenste bekleedsel 
der Vrucht, waarvan zich het eene met de op- 
perhuid of '* Epidennis,'* het andere m^t de 
■ware huid of " cutin vera'' zeer natuurlijk ver- 



ÖER RARA K-VRUCHTEN & 

g-clijkcM laat, bevindt zich een netswijs-slijmig 
weefsel, eea *' Betemncosum"' waar in de Zeep- 
ëardigc zelfstandigheid geplaatst is, v/elks het^ 
onderwerp onzes tegen woord igen onderzoeks is, 

Deeze Zeepaard ige stoffe is gon^achtig, kle* 
verig en doorschijnend; donkergeel van kleur, 
zoet en suikeraardig van reuk, en heeft eei*' 
sterken, onaangenamcn bitteren, in de keel bran- 
denden smaak : zij bezit eene aantrekkende en 
vereenigende verwantschap met de tegenoverge-i 
steldste zelfstandigheden, verbindt zich met loog- 
zout en zuren, met water, olie en v ijn-geest, en 
in de gemakkelijkheid, vaardigheiden innigheid 
dezer verbinding, enenaart zij de best^ zeep. 
Zij is van eene aanzienlijke hoeveelheid vaste 
lucht, in eenen gebondenen toestand, doordron- 
gen, die zich zoo dra de vrucht, geheel of in 
Sstukken gesneden, met water omgeschud wordt> 
schielijk ontbindt, eneenen witten schuim in me- 
nigte voortbrengt^ welke in eigenschap met het 
zoo genoemde Zeepsop nauwkeurig overeen- 
komt, en even als hetzelve, voor het wasschen 
der handen, het reinigen van linnen en kleeding, 
en voor verscheiden ander huishoudelijk gebruik^ 
kan aangewend worden. 

Scheikundige Ontleding. 
Proeve I. Twee oneen klein gesneden schiï«» 
len der Rarak- vrucht werden met eea en een half 



4- SCHEIKUNDIGE ONTLEÖr^^G 

pond gedestilleerd water overgoten, iu een' kolf 
gedaan^ en, na vier en twintig uren geweekt te 
hebben, vier oneen vloeistofFe overgehaald. Het 
gedestilleerde water had den bijzonderen zoet- 
achtigen reuk der Infusie (welke met den reuk 
eener vloeistofFe, die begint te gisten, zeer na 
overeenkomt): in het begin was de scherpe 
smaak der gomachtige stoffe nog te bespeuren, 
maar na vier en twintig uren was dezelve zuur-, 
ach tig, zacht en niet onaangenaam. 

De in den kolf terug geblevene stofFe, was 
bruin-rood van kleur, en van zeer sterken, bit- 
teren onaangenaam-brandenden Smaak : de oplos- 
sing des ijzer vitriools werd daardoor donker 
groen neêrgeploft. 

Proeve IF. Het overblijfsel (na de destil-» 
ïatie der Ite Proeve) werd zoo dikwijls met wa- 
ter uitgekookt, tot hetzelve zonder kleur en 
smaak afkwam, welk twaalf herhaalde infusiën 
vereischte Deze verscheidene infusiën werden 
gemengd en in eene zachte warmte tot een extract 
uitgewascrad, welk eene once en vijf drachmen 
"Woog, den eigenaardigen bitteren smaak, en ove- 
tige eigenschappen der in de schillen der vruch- 
ten bevatte kleverige gomme bezat. Het onop- 
loss el ij ke restant woog drieën een halve drachme, 
en be&tond slechts uit de (boven beschrevöo) 
)duiteu*eu binnenste huid der zaadhuisjes« 



DERRARAK-VRÜCHTEN. 5 

Proeve III. Eeneoncc der Vrucht-schillen 
werd inet zestien oneen Alcohol getrokken ; 6cte 
ïiam eene hoog-gele kleur aan : afgegoten zijnde, 
werden door twee versche trekkingen, alle oph)s- 
selijke deelen opgenomen: De Alcohol werd 
nu, tot op twee oneen, afgedestilleerd, en ecnige 
oneen water toeaevoeard, waardoor zich eeni2;e 
^yeinige zeer fijne witte wolken afzonderden, die 
door filtrering afgezonderd, en gedroogd, 5 grei- 
nen wogen.— tDe afgezonderde stofFe was nog hars 
nog gom, maar eenetaaije, geleiaardige zelfstan- 
digheid, waarvan de hoeveelheid niet toereikend 
was om dezelve genoegzaam te ontleden. De 
terugblijvende vloeistofFe was doorschijnend, en 
leverde, door zaehte uitdamping, bijna zes drach- 
men van een zeer fraai, volkomen doorschijnend 
iigt-geel extract, dat met de in de vruchten be- 
vatte gomachtigc stoöe overeenkwam, maar lig- 
ter van kleur, en van alle vreemdaardige deelen 
gezuiverd was. Het gedroogde overblijfsel, be- 
staande (als in de tweede Proeve) uit de twee 
schillen der Vrucht, woog twee drachmen en 
twee scrupei-s. 

Proeve IV. Een volkomen verza^digd wa* 
teracliiig Aftreksel der Rarak-vrucht schillen, 
van donker gele een weinig bruinachtige kleur, 
verhield zich tegen Reagentia op volgende \viJ2^e. 



P SCHEIKUNDIGE ONTLEDING 

i.) Eene drachme (dezes aftreksels) v.erd 
met de zelfde hoeveelheid sirooD van blaauwc 
bloemen gemengd^ en na eenigec tijd roodachtig 
briiin. 

Aanm» In de bereiding der Siroop, der Infusie en des 
Papiers vaa Blaauwe "bloemen, werd voor alle Proeven van 
dit Bürigt, de groole Blaauwe blocme der Clitoria Tcniatia 
Linn; aangewend.*— Zij levert een fraai en aandoenlijk 
toetsEiiddel voor Loogzout en zuren. 

2.) Eene drachme (des Aftreksels) met eene 
drachme der Infusie van Blaauwe- bloemen ge» 
meiigJ zijn Ie, werd eerst blaauw roodachtigj en 
sia eenigen lijd violet, 

3.) Op het Curcuma papier, heeft dit Af- 
treksel geene de minste uitwerking. 

Janm, Op dat dele proeven, niet als tegenstrijdend met 
eenige der volgende, die het aanweze.i eener merli el ij ke hoe- 
veelheid loogzout aantoonen, mogen beschouwd worden, is 
noodig aantemerken, dat, in Proeve 1) en 2), de verandering 
in de kleur der Blaauwe-bloemen, voortgebragt wordt, uit 
de in de Infusie bevatte vaste lucht (lucht. zuur), die in de 
andere proeven, door de werking des vuurs uitgedreven 
wordt. In de 3de Proeve, wordt dat in het Aftreksel be- 
vatte loogzout, door de vaste lucht in onzijdigheid, (Neu- 
trallzatie) gehouden. •-Na dat de Infusie eenige dagen ge- 
staan heeft, is de verandering der Blaauwe-bloemen, uit 
hoofde der grootere hoeveelheid door gisting ontboiidene, 
vaste luchtp meer schielijk en ia H oog vallend. 



t>i:rrarak-vruchten. 7 

. 4 ) Eene halve oncc (dezes Aftreksels) 
%verd met, dezelfde hoeveelheid Alcohol gemengd r 
'er ontwikkelden zich eeiie menigte van luclit- 
blaasjcs ; de Infusie nam eene meer Iieldere kleur 
aan, en eene zeei; fijne^ vlokkige in de vloeistoffc 
hangende neêrplofüng scheidde zich langzaam af. 
(Dit neêrplofsel kwam met dat in de derde proe- 
ve beschrevene naauwkeurig overeen.) 

5.) Als (dit Aftreksel) met gelijke hoeveel- 
Leid uitgeperste, kalappers of katjang olie ver- 
mengd en omgeroerd wordt, zoo verbindt het 
zich naauwkeurig daarmede tot een wit melk- 
achtig liniment (of smeersel) gelijkend aan het 
uit gelijke deelen Ammoniakzout-geest en O! ij- 
ven-olie bereide '* Linimcntum volatile". Het 
Extract levert met olie een dik zeepachtig 
smeersel. 

6. ) Met de oplossing des ijzer-vitriools ge- 
mengd, volgde eene neerplofïing van donker groe- 
ne kleur, die na eenigen tijd zwartachtig werd. 

7. ) De oplossing des bijtenden opgehevenen 
Kwiks, veroorzaakte een fijn, wit, aardachtig 
neêrplofsel, dat zich zeer langgaam afscheidde ; 
en in de oplossinar des suiker-zuurs, eene meniir- 
vuldige, witte, melkachtige neêrplo^ing Voort- 
bragt. 



8 SCHEIKUNDIGE O.N T L E D ï N G- 

8. ) In de oplossing des Koper-vitriools volg- 
de eene vl okk ige donker graauwe neerploffing, 
die in de vloeistoiFè drijvende bleef. 

9. ) De oplossing des zachten en des bijlen- 
den planten loogzouts^ verdonkerden de klenr ( des 
Aftrekzeis), en na eenige dagen zonderde zich 
(in beiden.) een fijn bruinachtig neêrplofsel af. 

10.) Door zv^avel^ salpeter en azijn zuur, 
verd de kleur (des Aftrekzeis) nnierkelijk ligter. 

De volgende twee Proeven werden gemaakt 
om de bestand-deekn des Extracts daartesteilen. 

Proeve V. Zes drachmen Extract (omtrekt 
de lielft der in de Ilde Proeve verkregene hoe- 
veelheid) werd bij herhaling met Alcohol ge- 
trokken, tot dezelve niets meer opnam : het on- 
opgeloste, bestond slechts uit eenige in de berei- 
ding bijgemengde schilferfjes der hulle, en woog 
gedroogd een' scrupel. De Alcohol gedeeltelijk 
afgetrokken zijnde, werden eenige oneen gedes- 
tilleerd water toegevoegd, waardoor eenige grei- 
nen witte geleiachtige stoffe neê^r geploft w^rd 
(zie de Illdc en No. 4 der IVde Proeve). De, 
zeer heldere vloeistofFe, uitgewasemd zijnde, 
leverde vijf en eene halve drachme cenes zui- 
veren, glanzenden, doorschijnendcn- donker/|elen 

(f 
extract s. 



DERRAK A K-VRUCHTEN. 9 

Proeve VÏ. Zos drachmen Extract ( van de 
lïde Proeve) werd in eenen openen smeU-kroes^ 
aan een hevig vnur bh)otgesteld, gedurende de> 
verbranding werd eene zeer groote menigte vaste 
lucht ontbonden. 

Aanm. De mangel eenes Hydro^pnenmatischen appara- 
tHS, belettede mij deze lucht te verzjimelen cu te ontleden, 
om welke reden ik deze proeve in 't vervolg herhalen zal 
om de bestand-deelen dezer luciit-vorini^e stoffe nader daar 
te leggen. 

Hierop volgden donkere dampen^ van sterkea 
olieachtiü'en reuk. Na volkomene brandius* 
woog de overblijvende asch twaalf greinen. — Zij 
werd met acht oneen gedestilleerd water wel uit- 
gekooktj waarop vier greinen onopgelost terug 
bleven. De loog uitgewasemd zijnde, leverde 
zeven greinen zout in fijne^ gele blaadjes, welk 
het vocht des dampkrings aantrok, en zich tegen 
Reagentia als een volkomen zuiver planten loog- 
zout verhield : met verdund salpeter-zuur ge- 
mengd, leverde het fraaij e kristallen van salpeter. 

Proeve VII. Twee oneen der Vrucht-schil- 
len, werden met twee pop.d gedestilleerd water 
overgoten, en door dikwijls herhaalde omroering 
(met een stok, die van onderen m-^t vier dwars- 
houteu voorzien was, voigens de Garaijische 
wijze) behandeld, tot alle de oplos?elijke stoffea 
opgenomen waren^ de geleiachtigc vloeistoSe 



lü SCHEIK.üN:DIGE ONTLEDI!?© 

werd nu ter helft, in zeer gematigde warmte u'iU 
gedampt, en daarop, in platte schalen tot verdere 
uitwaseming^ in de opene lueht neergezet. Na 
verloop van zes weken^ waren de waterachtige 
deelen uitgewasemd, en een zeer zuiver bruia 
Extract (in dezelfde menigte als in de ïlde 
Proeve) overgebleven, maar sporen van zout-kri* 
staliea toonden zich niet, en de slljmige zelfstan • 
dïgheid des Extracts, belettede de werking des 
daarin bevatten alcali, aan Curcuma en BlaauvY» 
lloemen papier zigtbaar te worden» 

Proeve VïIL Twee drachmen des Extract? 
(der Vilde Proeve) werden raet zes^ drachmen, 
met gedestilleerd water verdund salpeter-zuur, 
overgoten ; *er ontwikkelden zich menigvuldige 
salpeter dampen, de vloeistoffe nam eene zeer 
ligt-gele kleur aan, en eene witachtige bladerige 
Kaar hars gelijkende zelfstandigheid, scheidde 
zich af; na geëindigde ontbinding der salpeter 
lucht, werd de kolf van *t vuur afgenomen, de 
onopgeloste harsachtige deelen (die eene halve 
drachme wogen) door filtrering afgezonderd, en 
de vloeistoffe in eene platte schaal verder uitge» 
wasemd en bijgezet. Na eenige dagen begonnen 
zich op den bodem der schaal, fraaije, langwer-» 
pige, doorschijnende, kristallen aan te zetten, 
wier hoeveelheid na eenigen tijd, op eene drach» 
me beliep, en die zeer rein Suiker-zuur waren. 



DER R A R A X-V R U C H T E N. 11 

Het door water en wijnijeest uit de Rarak- 
schilleii getrokken Extract was dus ontleed; de 
vuur bestaiidigc deelen \^ aren nog daartestellen. 

Proeve ïX. Twee Dncen der schillen wer- 
den in eenen openen kroeö verbrand; de verkre- 
gene asch woog veertig greinen. In papier ge- 
wikkeld en bijgelegd zijnde, trok zij het vocht 
des darapkrings zoodanig aan, dat het papier als 
met water bevochtigd scheen, en zelfs op nabij 
liggende pakjes liet nat overvloeide. Na twee 
dagen had de asch vijf greinen aan gewigt toe- 
genomen : zij werd met twaalf oneen kokend ge- 
destilleerd water zorgvuldig uitgeloogd, uitge- 
waserad, en tien greinen zuiver loogzout in fijne 
gele kristallen 'er uit gekristalliseerd. 

Dewijl in het restant der asch, eenige niet vol- 
komen verteerde deelen bevat waren, (het loog- 
zout had het geweld des vuu-"'s eenigermate ver- 
doofd), zoo werd dezelve nogmaals in eenea 
gloeijenden kroes, aan *t vuur blootgesteld, waar^ 
na het overblijvende nog tien greinen woog 

Proeve X. Deze tien greinen (aardachtig 
overblijfsel) werden eerst met twee oneen jredes- 
tilleerden azijn behandeld, en uit de sohitie^ 
door het planten-loogzoiit, drie greint^n aarde 
neêrgeploft, die zeer zuivere Kalkciarde was, en 
geen spoor van Bitter aarde toonde. De over- 



lê SCHEIKUNDIGE ONTLEDING 

blijvende 7 greinen werden met verdund aqua re- 
gia der hitte biootgesteld, zij leverden twee en 
een half ^rein aluin aarde, en^ doorliet Rlaauw- 
zure loo^-zout omtrent een half grein Yzer — • 
vier greinen bleven onopgelost te rug, die groot- 
stendeels Kieselaarde waren. 

De oiimiddelijke Gevolgtrekkingen uit de ver- 
baalde proeven zijn : 

1. ) Dat door de destillatie wel eenige vlug- 
ge deelen opgeheven worden^ dat echter geene 
olie in de vrucht-schillen bevat is. Proeve I, 

2.) Dat zoo wel door Alcohol als door wa- 
ter, dezelfde hoeveelheid extractachtige stoffe 
( welke ruim drie vierde des gewigts der gebruik- 
te schillen bedraagt) verkregen wordt; echter is 
het geestige Extract het fraaiste, ligtkleurigste 
en zuiverste. Proeve II en III, 

3. ) De I Vde Proeve toont de uitwerking der 
voornaamste Reagentia op het waterachtige uit- 
treksel, waarvan ik slechts het aanwezen der vaste 
lucht No. 1, en der Kalkdarde No 7, en de 
naauwkeurige verbinding met Olie No. 5, als de 
merkwaardigsten, aanhale. 

(NB. Als een aanhangsel tot deze proeve, 
heb ik^ (het gene ik sedert de volcindiging derzel- 
veondervüüd) toctevoegen, dat ook met water 



DER R A ïl A K-V R U C Ö T E N. 13 

Wciarin gewoon zee-zout opc^elost is, het gom der 
schillen, zich gemakkelijk vereenigt, en eene 
kleverige, reinigende schuim (ofzop) in menigte 
voortbrengt. Deze vruchten kunnen dus dea 
Zee- varenden tot groot nut wezen.) 

4. ) Do werking des vuurs toont de volgende 
bestanddeehni^ in het Extract van eene once der 
schillen, aan ; zes drachmen of 360 greinen Ex- 
tract bevatten : 

349 greinen Gas of luclifvormige stoffen^ en di.Q 
wel grootstendeels vaste lucht zijn. 

7 Gieiwenzuiser \a.si plant e?i-l 00 gzo ut, 
4 greinen aardachtige deelen^ waarvan 1 en j 
grein reine kalkdarde zijn. — Zie ook de Xde 
Proeve. 

5.) De vvur-hestandige (vaste) dealen der 
schillen, worden door de IXde en Xde Proeve, 
zeer naauwkeurig aangetoond : De overeen- 
komst tusschen de Vide en deze proeven, is aan- 
merkelijk ; in beide is het aardachtige overblijf- 
sel zeer gering. 

Volgens deze ontledende proeven, bestaan de- 
ze schillen uit 1 ) eene eigenaardige, gomachtige 
verbindings stoffe, 2 ) eene aanzienlijke hoeveel- 
heid Loogzout, met lucht-zuur overzadigd en 3. ) 
eene geringe hoeveelheid fijne Kalkaarde, op 



14 SCHEIKUNDIGE O N T L E D 1 N 

eene zoodanige wijze vereenigd^ dat de menging 
dezer verscheidene zelfstandigbeden^ alle wer- 
kingen eener voIkon[ien zuivere Zeep voortbrengt. 

Meerdere scheikundige gevolgtrekkingen bie- 
den deze proeven nog aan : dewijl ik echter de- 
zelve nog niet als volbragt beschouwen en ook 
een plan tot vervolging derzelve ontworpen heb^ 
zoo zal ik deze tot dien tijd uitstellen^ dat ik, tot 
eigene voldoening, deze ontleding voleiadigea 
kan. 



VAN EENE MET VASTE-LUCHT BEZWANGERDE 

7f 



IN HET REGENTSCAP PARAKAK^-MOENTJAN", 
DOOR 

TH. HORSFIELD, Med. Dr. 






Ji N liet zuidelijke gedeelte des Regentschaps 
Parakan-Moentjan, ontspringt eene Bronwei, wel- 
ker water met veel vaste-lucht bezwansrerd is^ 
en waarmede de beneden volgende scheikundige 
proeven genomen zijn. 

De ligging dezer Bron is in eene vlakte^ de 
Golong-gong genaamd; zijnde eene de^* uitge- 
strektste vlakten^ van het oostelijke gedeelte der 
Jakatrasche Preanger Landen. De Grens-schei- 
ding van deze vlakte word bepaald, in 't westen, 
door het Gebergte welk den naam aan deze ge- 
heele vlakte gecft^ en Goenoeng GoIoug-gong 
genaamd wordt^ in 't oosten door de Rivier Tji- 



^ BRONWEt. 

Tondoï, van Cheribon ; in 't noorden door de 
voorgebergten des Tampnmaas (of grooten Su- 
madangscben Berg) van bet Regentscbap Sumii- 
dang, en in 't zuiden door de Rivier Tji-woelan, 
van Soekapoera, 

In deze vlakte, omtrent twintig uren bezuiden 
de Hoofdplaats van Parakan-moentjan, in bet 
district (oftjoetak) Tji-loloban, is eene Rust- 
plaats (of Pdssangraban) Tji-kado genoemd, 
van waar men in eene zuidwestelijke rigting, op 
den afstand van een uur, de gemelde Bronwei aan- 
treft; zijnde de naastbijliggende Kampong of 
Dorp Tji Puweelagebeeten. De Bronwei wordt, 
door de in den omtrek wonende Inlanders, van 
wegens den zoutacbtigen smaak des waters, Soe- 
ïnoer azin of Zoute put genoemd. 

De Bron ontspringt uit den top van eenen klei- 
nen beu vel, wiens kanten zacbt afbellen, en met 
struwelen en kleine heesters begroeid zijn; de 
top ecbter waar de opwellingen gevonden wor- 
den, is vlak en zonder eenige gewassen. 

Wanneer men dezelve nadert, ontdekt men 
eenige groote ongeregeld uitstekende Rotsen, aan 
wier uiterl jk voorkomen, zoodra men dezelve in 
't gezigt beeft, mm een aaimierkelijk verschil, 
van de gewone steensoort der omliggende ge- 
westen waarneemt. 



berïut vakeene 3 

Tot ïiogtoe heeft men op de heuvelen des Gö^ 
long-gongs^ geene dan ongeregeld in 't rond ver- 
spreide Easalt-steenen ontmoet; dan de steen- 
soort op dezen heuvel, is een echte Koraal-steen, 
en bij nader onderzoek geeü zich derzelver oor- 
spronkelijk Marine ontstaan, door de bekende 
Zee gedierten Corallia genoemd, zeer duidelijk 
te Kennen. 

De kleur der steenen is van biiHen grijs of 
bruinachtig, de oppervlakte oneffen, op sommige 
plaatsen gestreept, op andere slekkenvormig ge- 
aderdj en door de vallende regendruppelen, is de 
geheele ogper vlakte met ongeregelde uithollin- 
gen bedekt: gebroken zijïide, toont zich nog dui- 
delijker de Koraalachtige oorsprong; besLiande 
de geheele steen uit een weefsel van cellen en 
pijpen, die zich ongeregeld doorkruisen, en door 
dnnoe beddingen van Kalksteen verbonden zijn, 
wier breuk zich v^itachtig of geel vertoont, en 
waarin men, hier en daar nog ondergemengde 
schulpen of slakkenhuijyes vindt. De steen-soort 
is bros, en laat zich gemakkelijk aan stukken 
slaan; met de sterke mineraals Zuren, bruischt 
dezelve hevig op, en zij bezit alle eigenschappen 
van echte Kalksteen. 

Tusschen de gemelde uitstekende Rotsen, vindt 
men in de lagere plaatsen^ eene broze witachtige 



B R o N W E L. ** 

steensoort^ die zich gemakkelijk fijn wrijven 
, iaat, en van de gewone, gebluschte Kalk niets 
verschilt» 

De geheele vlakte op den top des heuvels, waar 
deze Bronnen geplaatst zijn, heefteene rondach- 
tige gedaante, en omtrent vijf en twintig roeden 
niiddellijns ; de afhellende kanten zijn met onge- 
regelde^ d iep-uitgeholde gangen in alle rigtin- 
gen doorkruist, die door de Rhinocerossen ce» 
maakt zijn, en waar in zij naar de Bronwellen 
opklimmen. 

De Inlanders hebben benrerkt^ dat deze Die- 
ren en de Herten, die op de schrale heuvelen, ia 
den omtrek, weiden, het aangename suurachti* 
ge water dezer wellen^ met groote graagte drin- 
ken. 

De Bron zelve, heeft vijf verschillende opwel- 
lingen. De eerste is in eene groote en hooge 
Rots verborgen : deze staat aan den bovensten 
kant der vlakte en heeft eene geregeld ronde, van 
boven kegelvormig toeloopende gedaante. De 
Rots is vijftien voeten hoog; in de bovenste punt 
is eene langwerpig ronde opening, die men van 
beneden niet gewaar wordt, hebbende omtrent 
twaalf duim middellijns ; achtien duim beneden 
der zei ver rand^ bemerkt men, ia het midden van 

B 



ERÏGT VAN EÉN E 



de Bots^ eene wel, waaruit het water hevig brui- 
send opkooktj en op de oppervlakte menigvuldige 
LucbthlaaFJes afscheidt. In smaak en overige 
eigensciiappeiij komt het water met dat der ande- 
re opwellingen overeen. 

Omtrent eene roede noordwaarts van deze 
Bron, vindt men, in een vlak^ ongeregeld^ uit 
dezelfde steensoort bestaand bekken^ eene tweede 
opwelling van Lucht-zuur water; rijzende op 
verscheidene plaatsen hevig borrelend in de 
hoogte en hebbende omtrent de diepte van twaalf 
duim Van alle de verscheidene opwellingen is 
het water, in dit bekken, het sterkste van smaak 
en het volkomenst met vaste lucht verzadigd. 

Op den afstand van anderhalve roede verder 
noordelijk is de derde en grootste Broawel, waar- 
van de rotsachtige bak grooter en dieper is, dan 
die der anderen; het water welt bier, als met 
groote hevigheid kokende in de hoogte. De 
noordelijke kant dezer opwelling is met eene 
groote, hooge, ongeregeld overhangende rols, 
overdekten beschaduwd. 

Omtrent twee roeden van deze opv^'elling, in 
dezelfde rigting, heeft men langs eene giüi)ie 
uitstekende rots, nog twee Bronnen in ongere- 
geld-ronde steenen bekkens, waarin het water 
zacht borrelende opwelt, zich hieruit ontlastende 



BRONWEL, Ö 

de hoo2:te lan«:zaam afstroomt, en in de uithol- 
lingen der steenen, die in de vlakte liggen, ver- 
zamelt: de geheele oppervlakte des uitgeloo- 
penen waters ï% met schilfertj^s van kalksteen 
bedekt, die zich door blootstelling aan de Lucht 
hebben afgescheiden. 

De smiak des verschen vraters, bij de Bron wel 
is geestig en scherp, echter zuiver, aangenaam 
prikkelende en zonder bitterheid, toonende het 
aanwezen en de bij menging eener groote hoe- 
veelheid vaste Lucht, en is naauwlijlcs van het 
Europiscbe Selters water te ondersdielden. 

De volgende Proeven toonen de Eigenschappen 
en Bestand-delen des waters aan, in zoo ver de- 
zelve door tegenwerkende Midd^len, (Reagen- 
tia) kunnen daargelegd worden: de vergelijken- 
de Proeven werden met Europisch water ge- 
maakt, dat in cene digte kruik bewaard was, en 
nog in een* volkomen graad, de eigenschappen 
des eelitea Seiters water bezat. 

Proeve Ï. Eene tot op de helft met dit wa- 
ter aangevulde fles hevig schuddende, ontwik- 
kelde zich de vaste Lncht in menigte, en plofte 
met een sterk gedruisch, uit de opening : het wa- 
ter schuimde met de gewone teekens der aan- 
wezigheid deze: LucLt. 



■4 BERÏGTYANEENE 

Vergelijkende Proef. Deze Proef werd met 
Europisch Seltera water herhaald en had dezelfde 

Bitwerking. 

PnoEVE II. Drie druppelen Zwavelzuur 
met een halve once van dit water £:emena:d. ver- 
oorzaakten eene aanmerkelijke opbruising^ en 
eene menigte Luchtbiaasjes rezen in de hoogte, 
welke zich door de vloeistofFe omteschudden ver»* 
meerderden. 

Vergel. Het Selters water verhield zich even 
zoo. 

Proeve III. Eene halve onee water, met 
eenige druppelen kalkwater gemengd, deed witte 
volkjes te voorschijn komen, en een fijn vlok- 
achtig neerzetsel scheide zig in geringe hoeveeU 
heid af. 

Vergel. Met Selters water had hetzelfde 
plaats, echter werden de witte wolkjes weder 
geheel en spoedig inde vloeistofFe opgelost. 

Proeve IV. Eenige kristallen van suiker- 
suur veroorzaakten in het water eene sterke op- 
bruising, en een melkachtig afscheidsel volgde^ 
dat na eenige uren als een wit poeder op dea 
grond viel. 

Vergel, Deze Proef werd met Selters water 
met hetzelfde gevolg herhaald* * 



B R o N W E L. 8 

Pr.oEVE V. Door het Planten Loog-zout, 
werd in het water een menigvuldig wit neerzet- 
sel voort«;ebra<>t, dat zich in een cirkelvormige 
gedaante nederzette 

Ver2:el, Tn het Selters vs^ater volgde eene ge-» 
lïjksoortige neêrploffing, echter was d>ezelve raiii- 
der menigvuldig. 

Proeve VI. Eene verdunde oplossing van 
zilver in salpeter zuiir^ veroorzaakte een menig- 
vuldig wit, melkachtig neerzetsel;, dat na eenige 
uren in lood kleur veranderde. 

Vergel. In Selters water bragt deze oplossing 
hetzelfde verschijnsel voort. 

Proeve VII. Door de oplossing van Lood 
in Salpeter- zuur werd het water wil'achtig (opa- 
lizerend) en na eenige uren bemerkte men^ eea 
ligt witachtig neerzetsel. 

Vergel. SeUers water verhield zich ook aldus. 

Proeve VIÏI. Door toegevoegd zuiver Al- 
cohol, werd het water zeer weinig troebel^ eii 
eene nnauvvlijks bemerkbare melkachtige stoffe 
zonderde zich af. 

Vergel. Selters water werd door x\lcohol niet 
merkelijk veranderd. 



y Ï5ER1GT VANEENE 

Proeve IX. Door liet Blaauwzore Loog* 
zout volgde ia het water geene verandering vaa 

kleur ; noch 

Proeve X. Door de op Alcohol getrokken 
Galnoten, 

VergeL Ook het Selters water v»'erd dooy 
deze beiden niet veranderd. 

Pf.,oeve Xf . Het met een aftreksel van Sap* 
panhout gekleurd papier, werd na een korten tyd 
in 't \vater gedompeld te zij;i, paarslïchtig, het 
Blaaiiw Bloemen papier, groenachtig; dan het 
Ciircuma papier bleef onveranderd. 

Vergel. Seliers water werkte op gelijke wij* 
se op deze drie verschillende gekleurde papieren. 

Proeve XII. x4cht oneen dezes waters wer- 
den in een Zaod-badj aan eene gematigde hitte 
blootgesteld : menigvuldige Luchtblaa^jes ont- 
wikkelden zich en rezen in de hoogte. De graad 
van hitte vermeerderd zijnde, begonnen zich wit- 
te schilfertjes op de oppervlakte te vertocnen, 
die oa eenigen tijd vermeerderden, en het water 
met eene dunne, v/itte korst overdekten, zoo dat 
het zich als kalkwater vertoonde, dat lang aan 
de open Lucht was blootgesteld geweest. Den 
zuren geestigen smaak had het water geheel ver- 



ÏJ R o N W E L. 10 

Vers:'*!. Met Soltors water werd deze Prae- 
ve lïerhaald, en de uitkomst was naauvvkeurig 
dezelfde. 

Gevolgtrekkingen van deze Proeven, 

Door de Ite Ilde en ïllde Proeven wordt men 
onderrigt, dat bet onderzochte water eene aan- 
zienlijke hoeveelheid der vlugge, elastieke Lucht- 
stofFe^ gewonel^jlc vaste Lucht genoemd^ in 
zich bevat. De IVde Proeve toont het aanwe- 
zen eener aanmerkelijke hoeveelheid Kalkaarde. 
Door de Yde Proeve werden alle met het water 
gemengde en daarin opgeloste aardachtige dee- 
len van verschillende soort^ nedergeploft. De 
Vide Proeve leert ons het aanwezen eener ge- 
ringe hoeveelheid van Zee-zout zuur^ dat waar- 
schijnlijk in verbinding met de Kalk'aarde, als 
Zee- zoutzure kalk in het water is opgelost ; het 
IS bekend, dat dit zout door Alcohol ontbonden 
wordt, om welke reden ook in de VlIIte Proeve, 
door bij gemengd Alcohol, ee.ie naauwlijks be- 
merkbare troeboling volgde. Men kan ook uit 
deze Proeve verder besluiten, dat noch Salpeter, 
noch gevitrioolde Wijnsteen, nochGlaubers zout 
(die alle dooi Alcohol afgezonderd worden) in 
het waKr bevat zijn. De Vilde Proeve toont 
op g'lijke wijze het aanwezen van Zee-zout 
zuur. Uit de ÏXde en Xde Proeyea blijkt. 



11 BERIGTVANEENE 

ddi g'ecne Yzcr deelen in het water bevat, zijn, 
In de Xlde Pioeve werd door indompeliiia; de 
kleur van het Sappan papier, door de in vaste 
lucht opiieloste av^rd-deelen veranderd ; en hier- 
aan is ook de groenachtige kU^ur des Bluauwea 
Bh)emen papicrs toeteschrijvcn. In de Xlïde 
Proeve werd de vaste Luch.t, door de hitte opge- 
heven» en ileedy de daarin opgek)ste Kalkaarde 
ten voorschijn komen. 

Uit de vergelijkende Proeven, mei het Enro- 
pische Selters water blijkt, dat het voornaanisfe 
verschil, tusschen die twee wateren in het vol- 
gende bestaat. 

1.) Dat in de Proeve met hijg-emengd Kalk- 
water, de afgezonderde Kalkaarde, in het Euro- 
pisch water wederom geheel werd opgelost, de- 
wijl in het Javaansche water, een nederzinksel 
terug bleef; zie de derde Proeve. 

2. ) Dat door het Planten loog zout^ in het 
Europisch water eene mindere hoeveelheid van 
ncerplofsel veroorzaakt werd; zie 5de Proeve. 

3. ) Dat het Europisch water, door bijge- 
mengd Alcohol, niet veranderd wordt. 

Deze vergelijkende Proeven toor.en verder aan_, 
dat in het Europisch water, minder opgeloste 
Kulkaardej dau ia het Javaansche, bevat is, dat 



B R o N W E L. 13 

rclitcr de hoeveelheid van vaste Lucht in beiden 
gelijk iS;, bewijzen duidclyk de Ite Ilde ca 
Xllde Proeven. 

De overeenkomst tiisschen het Luchtzuur wa- 
ter van Parakan-Moentjan^ en het Europisch 
Selters water, in bestaand-deelen en eigenschap- 
pen,, wordt door de vergelijkende Proeven ge- 
noegzaam aangetoond ; echter blijft nog in 't oog 
te houden, dat het Europish water in een zeer 
gematigd klimaat gevonden wordt, dewijl de 
Javaansche Bronwei in eene heete Luchtstreek 
gelegen is^ 

Het is daarom door verdere waarnemingen te 
bepalen, welken invloed de hitte des klimaats op 
de bewaarbaarheid des waters heeft; of dezelve 
eenige afscheiding der bijgemengde aar J-en 
lucht-deelen veroorzaakt, dan wel eenige ver- 
mindering in den naauwkeurigen zamenhang 
dezer zelfstandigheden, waar van de goede eigen 
schap des waters voornamelijk afhangt, wordt 
voortgebragt. Van het versche water kan men 
zoo wel in geneeskundigen als in huishoudelijken 
opzight, hetzelfde gebruikt makjn als van het 
Europischj 



\^T?i puhiisliing the following paper^ xve re* 
grct that it is iiot in our^ower io funiish 
Engravings of the Plajis and Drawings re* 
ferredto by Colonel Mackenzie. — fVe must also 
request the indulgence of the reader fo excuse 
any errors of the Press, this being the first 
English paper printed in the Transactions ,and 
the copy left by Cclonel Mackenzie with the 
Society ^being in manyinstances imperfect !2 



IX. 

OF A 

JOURNEY TO EXAMINE TUE RKMAL ^ 

OF AN 

ANCIENT CITY ANjO TEMF1.ES 

AT 

BRAM BAN A ÏN JAVA: 

( Extracted from a Journal kcpt Jnj Licutenani 
Colonel MacKei^zie.) 



Janüary 19, 1812. 

1.— ^.^RRIVED at Brambana about 9 A. jvi. 
by very deep bad roadsj and put up at the Cliiiia- 
man's Biindaroenear the road. — While breakfast 
was gettiiig ready I stept out, walked across and 
along the road ; and,by a path winding ncar the 
river, wandered among ruinsevidently belonging 
to some great building, till at hist I got into the 
square, inclosing the Ancient Pyramidal Mounds 
of stone dircctly opposite the Chinaman's, and 
knovvn by the name of Branibana. — (See Sketch 
Plan, No. 1.) 



2 KARRATTVE OF A JOÜRNEY 

2. — I wandered among thesen ruias unaccorn- 
panied by anj gnide ; foliowed the course of the 
river from the road, passing over large blocks of 
ciit stone, disjoioted from their original walls, 
wbich could be traced in several places ; vvhence 
it appeared that besidcs the great doublé square 
imclosing' the ruinous Pjramidal heaps, — some 
other buildings stood formerly/ within this angle 
formed by the river witb the road. — After walk- 
ing witli difficulty over these broken v>^alls, 
^vhich are siirrounded bj wet paddj ground^ 
I got within the second iriclosure, and passing 
through between two ruinous buildings^ I turn- 
ed oiTto the Icft between the third and fourth. — - 
These masscs, which at a distance appear like 
Pyramids, on close inspection are found to have 
consisted ofigiiially of Towers or Temples, 
whose bases were square; bot the ontward coat- 
ino:s of sculptnred stone being torn OiF. are tum- 
bled into heaps around thcm, thns formi.ig the 
shapclesshilMike masses whichthe traveller sees 

froiK theroad.— Thelistsand fillets of the base are 
discovered in some places through the ruins and 
branches of Banian— Iciimbed over tbc ruins of 
two of them (the third and fourth ) and ascendin^ 
between them, tnnicd off to acavity that appear- 
ed on th.e left ( or No. 2, ) which I found contain- 
ed '40 Image sculptured on stons, representi/ig 



T-S^XAMINE THE REMAINS, &C. 3 

Endok Lora-jorgran, and which if I am not 
mistaken, resembles Bavani or Parwuttienragcd, 
holding a figure by the hair of the head ; she 
stands on an aiiimal which I now suppose to be 
Baswcswiir, though I formerly took it for 
Maheswur. — Her six arms, holding the several 
attributes of the Chank, Chacrum^ &c. aic re- 
presented according to the Hindu form, and one 
feels no hesitation in considering Ihis belonging 
to the Mythology held by the Vedanta Rramins 
of India — tlie stone was yellowish colorcd, and 
some grass placed befi>re ii shewed it to be still 
an object of veneration and worship. — ïn fact, I 
foiind two or three natives now foliowed m?, \yho 
by their attention to the Tuan, seemed desirous of 
cultivating my notice ; they told me this was 
Lora Jongran, and ofiered to conduct me io 
another object of curiosity. — The Chapel ia 
which this figiire was placed is abont 8 ïe^t 
square, and its roof is formed by a series of plain 
blockg, raised slopiug up to the topj which isf 
covered by one flat stone ; so that the roof ferms 
a Pyramidal funnel of steps reversed, rising from 
a plain square. — On each side of this figure 
appeared a piliar crossed, which at first sight 
seemed as if fallen into that position ; but on 
narrowinspectionseems originally placed so^ and 
I Ihink is meaiit to convey aa idea of the God- 



4 NARRATIVE OF A JOÜRXEY 

dess arising from the two pillars torn asunder— 
tb is idea is also sapported bj the well we firid 
directly before the Goddess^ which leads me to 
conclüde that the same storj is represented here 
as at Tripanticum* and^ olher phices^ where a 
well usually accompanies the representation of 
the Goddess in this wrathful mood^ vvhether by 
the name of Parwuttee^ Bovanee^ or Doorgee. 
As this Temple or Chapel is evidently an appen- 
dasre to the £:reat one. which mustlie more to the 
centre^, I clambered over the stones round 
to the west side^ where in like manner I 
found another Chapel of the same dimeosions, 
(No. 3^) with a large image of Ganésha upon 
its Pedestal ; it had nothing remarkable in it^ ex- 
cepting that it was not accompanied by the 
Vehanum of tlie God. — I liad to descend two 
steps to it. — This my assiduous conductors nam- 
ed Gaja-Moadoa. 

o. — From thence I clambered higher over vast 
heaps of stones^ till I came to the south side, 
where I disco vered a cavity, into which I had 
to descend with some difficulty on account of 



♦ Tripanticum, a place of IIÏDdu Worship, ncar Innaconda ia 
Guntoor, where the Goddess Bavani or Parwutti was formerly Wor- 
shipped with sanguinary rites. 



TO EXAMINE THE RUINSj &C. . 5 

the stones ihiit blocked up the passage and ob- 
scurcd the light ; here I found a stone overtuni- 
ed and firmlv sunk in the earth^ on which was 
5culptured the statue of an aged Chief or King, 
remarkable for the Majesty and gravity of its 
aspect — rits fiowing beard, its raised aquilinenose, 
and Roman coiintenance, far different from the 
Mahiv, Javanese, or Hindoo oiitline ; it holds a 
rosary in the right hand, and its left hand 
seems to have been fixed on somethinir^ resem- 
bling tlie handie of a sword ; hut the fingers 
being damaged, this is doubtful. — The legs are 
wanting, and seem broken off from the oriscinal 
relievo — near its right side is a staff with a Tri- 
dent;* the Crown, Bracelets^ and D apery, as it 
lay along, are represented in Figure, No. — 

4. — 1 found it impracticable to go round to 
the eastside, or to ascend hi2:her, bnt it is proba- 
ble that the grand entry to the interior Temple 
may have been on that side.— *The whole of this 
Pile, Pyramid^ or Mass of Stone niay be perhaps 
aboutöOfeethigh, andto thedoors which I enter-» 
ed about 25 feet. — -Some ornaments were visible on 



* This Trident headed Stafif I have since found on several Sculptures 
jn Java, and seems designed as a Sceptre usually desigaating Royalty 
and Commerce. 



6 NARRATIVE OF A JOURNEY 

the corners of the abutments and pilasters that 
occasionally peeped from among thestones or lay 
amongtheruins; among these the hideous Gaping 
mouth that is so frequently seen heie terminating 
the projections of the Stone Beams ; also small or- 
naments terminating or crowning pilasters, proba- 
bly animitationinminiatureof the real order and 
elevation of the Temple. — Borders in Arabesque 
composed of flowers^ a running foliage of roses/ 
lotus, &c. on the pilasters. — ïn this first Temple 
and some others, the names of some Engineers and 
Surveyors who had visited the place were writ- 
ten, some of whom we know, and whence the 
identity of the buildings described or laid down 
by them is ascertained ; among these were som^ 
of our acquaintance. 

5.^ — I now returned after passing about au 
hour among these ruins, and in tracing the direct 
path back to the Chinaman's house, passed a 
great variety of blocks, stones and other frag- 
ments of these venerabie piles ; lastly, next the 
road, a very neat naked image sitting, of a Jain 
or Boitdh statue, the head of which was loosened 
by some protane hand, hut still placed on the 
neck — the mild and innocent look of this figure 
is highly characteristic. 



TO EXAMtNE THE REMAlNSj &C. t 

6. — After some refreshment, about half past ele- 
Vcn A. M. Mr. Knops and niyself, witli the Drafts-- 
man, and some villac^ers provided by the China- 
man (by the Sooracarta Gentlemen's orders) pro- 
ceeded in more form to perambulate the ruins ; 
chairs Were provided^ covered with canopies of 
leavcs and each carried by 4 men on poles of bam- 
boo;, bnt my impatience did not alwayspermitme 
to avaii myself of this convenient coverture from 
the sun's scorching rays, amidst the tantalizing 
ruins that surrounded us — we first proceeded io 
theGieatIncIosure I had jast left^ whieh is what 
is properly called Brambana. 

7. — Though three Mounts^ Hills or Pyramid^ 
of stones form the first conspicuous objects that 
attract notice from the road^ yet on near inspec- 
tio'n it will bc found that there are more, appa- 
rently of smaller size^ some of them in gr^ateror 
less preservation ; although these observations 
are the result of other visits^ yet for the sake of 
uniformity, I shall here enter at once the desul- 
tory remarks whieh I was able to make. 

8. — There weretwostone v/alls in squares, in- 
closing the whole and each other, the blocks of 
whieh were from two to three feet square^ and long 
in proportion ; chiselled and adapted to each 



8 NARRATIVE OF A JOüRi^Y 

other, frequentlv with channels running through 

them — most of these biocks are plain^ and tum- 

bled together in inextricable confusion. — 

Among these no sculptures are seen ; it is prob- 

able they only belonged to the Gatewajs^ which 

are no longer traced^ except bj greater ruinSj or 

in the casing of the Terapies. — In the Angle of 

the inclosure, particularly the N. W. near a 

great tree^ are the rains and scite of a smaller 

buildings distingiiished bv its foundation or base ; 

and aiso the base of a smaller building, perhaps 

a choultry» in the liindoo stile; the whole 

breadth of the Western part is taken up by the 

three great pyramids, which ï take to be now in 

these ruins from fifty to sixty or seventy feet high ; 

to the right of these, as we cross the inclosure from 

South io North, are three others, smaller origi- 

nally, as is evident by the ruins of the most 

Southerly, which preserves, more of its original 

form, or is less buried in stones ; for it is to be 

observedj that none of that rubbish found in other 

buildings, and composed of bricks, earth, smaller 

stones or other materials used to fill up, is here 

to be met with ; the whole appearing to have 

consisted of biocks of stone, fitted to each other 

and not yielding to time, Further to the West 

are smaller Teroples, into two of which I looked 



TO tXAMlNE THE REMAÏNS, &C. 9 

butpei-ceivc^d nothin^ rcaiarkable, exccpting two 
small Tigers well dc^picted on one corner stonc. 
The vvhole of the area was so miich incumber- 
ed witb stoiies, weeds aiid bushes that I could 
not positively determine the number or regular 
planof their distribatioii ; biit I shoiild giiess 
thcre were altogether about 9 ör lö of these 
separate structures vvitbin this square. 

9 — After- making these observations on the 

riiiiis of Brambana, we were carried in our chairs 

through the paddy fields in a northerly direction 

about a miie ; here we observed the paths bniit up 

frequeiitly with ent and scnlptured stones, the 

remains of the aiicient works ; at last passing 

through groves of trees^ we arrived at the com- 

mencemeiit of the Chandi* Sewo Tempje, the 

same which Major Cornelius describes in a Me- 

moir of 1807. The bushes here are so thick 

thdt we did not perccive, tiil we came sud- 

denlv 011 them, two gigantic iigures of porfer??^ 

apparenliy kneeling oo pedestals facing each 

other, resting oa clubs held in oi\3 hand; 

a snake winds round one arm, and in the other 

thej seem also to hold another. These images 



* Chandi, a BuUdins: or Tempie — Sewo, one thomand— Chandi Pewo 
the thousand Teinpliis or 3uiI.iiRg5. 



iÖ ^ NARRAT5VE OF A JOÜRNEr 

have thelr bair in regular cüfls (and a Bandeait 
roiiiid the head) somewhat resembling the Per- 
Sepolitan fis^ures ; the noses prominent and rais- 
ed; the Eyeballs glaring'; their arms are orna- 
mented v/ith Jewels, and in each of their girdles 
behiüd is a short dag'gef with a cross handle. 

iO. — Passing; fron> the Watchmen, whicb are 
on the West side of the Temple^ we crossed 
the roins of a wall^ evidently the ancient inclo- 
snre^ whicb is composed of large blocks ; in 
this wall I foiind the triink of a large naked 
statne of black stone (without the head) 
wbicb seerned from the ^ant of dress to be Jain; 
we now entered on an avenue of rnijious Tem- 
ples, apparentlj square, whicb ied to the grand 
fanein the centre; the first four have their doors 
faeing each otber. In the first on the right wa.^ 
a fine Jain image, naked, witb curled locks, and 
a snsalielevatiorion the head. The otberswere va- 
cant and had been robbed of their former inhabi- 
tants; these Temples we could perceive, though 
defaced by time and obscured by bushes, bad been 
reguLirlj built on a handsome base, on whicb 
were raised compartments occupied by urns 
•witb flowers, pilasters ornamented witb Arabes- 
quc, and niches in whicb the remains of figures 
^-ere still visible, though mucb damaged; above 



TO EXAMINE THE REMAINS, &C. 11 

bad been certain ornaments which could not wcH 
))e determined, and tlie form of the snrmount- 
ing crown was entirely hid ; four more of these 
Teraples were passed before we reached the 
stairs leading to the central edince^ over a kind of 
moat or ditch, evidentlv of latter time : bv 5 or 6 
steps we ascended into a Porch, in front of 
which was an Arcade of 3 Arches, pointed 
^nd border^^d like the stile called Gothic or 
Arabic. The central Acch had a kind of xAltar 
carved with an urn^ flowers and several other 
embleras ; near these, two resembled the figures 
of the Chank ; others a crooked dagger, such as 
we sometimes meet in these countries, The two 
side Arches were ornamented above in like man- 
ner; the sidesof the portal had also three Archea, 
but no opening in any, excepting one to i\\Q. South 
through which we passed roiind to the Sonth 
side, where another avenue of ruinous Temples 
leads to a Gateway, in which four moreGi2:antic 
Porters are placed ; and then bj two other 
Arches to the Eastern entrance, whence by eight 
steps up to the body of the Temple, which is a 
square apartment of about thirty-two ^e^i high; 
above this the vault rises about thirty-two feet 
more^ formed iu steps, all of stone, neatly cut, 
but now ready to tumblein; the walls plaia 



li2 NiRKATÏVE OP A JOüRNE-i* 

and smootb. Tlie onlj opening is in ibis EaF» 
tern door, op po si te to wbich is a grand Altar, 

wliich ülls üp the wliole of the West side. 

li.-~The Altar is formed with a resrular base 
or pedestal and terminated by a neat corner ; 
steps lead up on each side to the wall and tbence 
inwards to the body of the Altar. Light is 
tbrown into the Area by a lateral opening 
above, The vault of the apartment is octago- 
ïial;, formed by crossin^ the four angles of the 
square with other stones transversely. — On look- 
ing up, the mind is struck with awe and terror, as 
nothing appears to retain thé stones which bulge 
out, and threaten to overwhelm the curious en- 
quirer amidst their ruins, from a height at least 
of sixty feet. 

12. — On the eastern side was a doublé portal, 
the outer of which had arcades, ornamented in 
the same manner as the west, or first we entered. 

13. — The weather now getting rainy, I could 
not examine these interesting ruins so minutely 
as thev merited : the northern and eastern ave- 
nues of smaller Temples, were therofore not so 
serupulously examined as I wisbed ; most of 
Ihem are damaged, some rent, others half tum- 
bled in^ exhibiting a confused mass of stones and 



TO E^AMINE TKE REMAINS^, &C. 13 

bushes ; the whole of them are raised on regular 
bases^ and the second order divided by pilasters, 
ornapiented generally with an arabesque foliage 
or ojt" roses ; in the niches bet ween the corner 
pilasters and the central compartment,stood statues 
in relievOj male or female, in the most srracefal 
attitudes ; sometimes holding up the right hand 
with a finger extended, and the left embracing 
a Lotus branch which grows near them hearing 
one flower. In the central compartment, an 
urn, crowned with flowers^ is represented, the 
chank lying on each side of it; at top sur- 
mounted by the grotesque monsttous extended 
Jaws and glaring eyes which form a constant 
accompaniment of all these Temples. In other 
instances the figure holds up a Lotus in one 
hand, and in the other a mail or club ; some 
figuresseem to have a long stand or candelabrum 
near them ; in one case I think I observed a 
Vase, with a spout not resembling any Europeau 
workmanship. 

14. — Most of these Temples are destitute or 
have been robbed of their object of worship, 
In one ( I have already observed ) I saw a Jain or 
Boudh naked figure. In another I observed 
the three close sides were ornamented with a 



14 NARRITIVE Of A SOVfifiEr 

kind of three branched chandelier, supporting 
three arched niches or shrines a little raised or 
ornamented. 

15.— It is to be renjarked of the whole of these 
buildings of Chandi Sewo, that no emblem or 
symbol of the worship of the Vedes of Seeva, 
Vishnii, or Brama appeared, except the Chank, 
which might be merely an ornan;ent, unconnect-r 
ed with the worship here^ whatever it n^ight 
Jhive been. 

lö.-f'AVe enquired and sought in vain for in- 
scriptions and characters ; an aged Mantree, 
who was our Ciceroni^ intimated there were some 
in the ruins of the upper part^ and I clambered 
in quest of them upon the ruinous roof ; bui 
what was pointed out consisted merel j of single 
characters or figures which seemed cut on the 
stones ; and as these were on the parts built into 
the wall. I can only consider them as marks or 
numbers hy which the stones were probabij re- 
cognized after they were brought ready cut to 
the building. (See the characters aunexed No. 
12.) 

17. — We proceeded on our return from the 
souih gate, where were two Gigantic Wardens, 
in the same garb an»! attitude — abouthalf waj we 



fo EXAMINE THÉ REMAINS, &C. 15 

arrived af anotlier Temple whose ruinous Pjres 
we had obsorved in passing to Chandi Sewo, on 
the right — these cousist of one principal Tem- 
ple in the centre of a Square of smaller ones ; 
hut some of theni were so entirely ruined, that 
I could not determine the real niimber that once 
existed, though 1 guess thcre might have been 
about fonrtcen or sixteen. I think this wa^ 
iiamed Tonongo. The central Temple Was square 
and plain within, surmounted by a pyramidal 
roof built up in steps within ; its stones were 
massy black ish blooks, and ornaniented a good 
deal in a superior stile without. No Image or 
Sculpture within. — ^Eleven arched niches were 
wof ked in the wall with Gothic arched tops. 

18 — y/ithout this beautiful edifice^ I found 
ahlock lyiiig, of about three and a half feet square 
and two feet thick^ on which a beautiful fcmale 
figure was sculptured in relievo and defended 
by a border equally thick (see No. 13) the 
beauty and graceof the attitude was striking ; — it 
seems to hold a folded parasol in the right 
hand, and a Tulip or Lotus in the left — this 
stone probably was worked into the walls of one 
of these Temples, but I am uncertain which. 



10 NARRATIVE Oï' A JOURNEY 

19. — We returned bj tbree p m and in tbe 
evening we waiked out on the toad to Djocjo- 
carta, and crossed the River Kali-ÜpaS, &c. 
observed a stone cut in a particular forrn^ though 
different from the usual Hindoo Lingam ( ï had 
it removed to the Chinaman*s on the Sist.) — 
Proceeding further^ observed in the fields to the 
ieft a statuCj which^ on exaraination^ appeared to 
be a Jain Figure, naked, sitting. Complete; be- 
hind this hedgethere were two or tbree more, 
broken — all of black stone and of a considerable 
size. Shortlj after we came to the spot 
where, on the 24tb December last;, in passing^ I 
had observed some statues close to the road. — 
One of these seems to be a Jain-Feertur, the 
other is decorated with ornamentSj and is meant 
probablj for some Prince the Eadower of a 
Temple ; both these are represented sitting, and 
have nothing monstrous (seeNo. 14 and No. 
15j ) a sniall mutilated statue is placed near thera, 
and twö fragments on wliich the Yali is sculp- 
tured. 

20 — Returned at six a. m. much fatigued^ 
though highly gratified with our inspection of 
these antiquities — the evening was fair and plea- 
sant. — We were lodged in the Chinaman's house 



TO EXAMlNE thï: rëMains, &c. 17 

W^here we wcre accommodated with the open 
liall on pillars in front,, with chairs and tables, 
wliere we sat, wrote and eat -^Within^ a sleep ing 
room and tolerable beds were allotted to each 
on either side of a hall, where the family eat 
their own meals under the auspices of th« hoge 
painted Joss. 

21. — The evening was passcd after dinner in 
writingour notes, and in Mr. Knops' takingdown 
the traditionarj account of Buka Embok Lora- 
Jongran^ as translated veibally bj one of the 
younger Chinese, from a village-Maiitree wba 
promised to bring a MSS. containing its historj 
in the morning. It rained at night ; we slept 
perfectly securC;, undisturbed by any appre- 
hension of tbose disorders which so seriously 
threatened the tranquillity of this country ia 
December last. 

January 20, 1813. 
22. — It rained in the morning, which prevent- 
ed onr going out as intended till after break- 
fast ; about nine it was still heavy, however, we 
determined to procced, and instead of 2:oin«' to 
the Temples on the Djo( jocarta róad, we were 
conducted by our venerable Ciceroni and guide^ 
througli the paddy fields totliesouth of Bramba- 



l8 NARRATVIE OF A JÖURNEy 

n'd, aboütorie and a half or two miles ; the beaf-* 
ers waded throiigb mire, and the passage was at 
tj'mes so narrow aod deep as to oblïg'e iis to gei 
out of the Chair repeatedlj/. Arrived near a vil- 
lagCj we were condiicted throiigh a field across a 
stoiie iïiclosure^ which noW eichihited various 
specimens of ancient remains in chiselled stones. 
The first object that attractcd riiy notice here 
was a gigaiilic ügure such as We had seen yester- 
daj^ 00 bis knees^ looking to the east^ on a 
pedestai ; the countenance strongly marked^ re- 
sembling a Negro, with great ejes, prominent 
Nose and lips^ teeth exposed or rather grinning. 
The Hair curled and the hcad surrounded by a 
Bandeau with ornaments ; the ciirls seemed 
Kuicb to resemble those of the Persian figures at 
Persepolis; in it§ right hand it held or rather lean- 
ed on a club or mail, in its left it grasped some- 
thing like a snake ; the belly prominent, a belt 
round it, a Necklace of Pearls or large beads 
roundits neck, and richjewels in ils eais, the fea- 
tures well delineated in hard dark sloüc ; its 
teeth seemed as grinning; directly oppositc, ifs 
fellow wasfound thrown down prostrate, broken 
from its Pedestai— the height kneeling may be 
scven fcet. — This positiou naturally made me 



TO EXAMtTvE THE REMAÏNS^ &C. 19 

look to the east and accordinglv, within t*he in- 
closiire, appearrd aconfused Pyramidal heap of 
stoiies^ upwards ofeightv feet high, ^vhichat ftrst 
^eeined to be a group or clnnip of Trces^ in 
consequeiice of the Banian working up its wav, 
and aftor prejing on its bowels, finally oversha-' 
dowing the verj top^ in siich a manncr as io pre^ 
vent its real shape being known. (Sec Diawing 
No. 16.) 

23.^-8-Pullingdown some of the stones^we^ got 
into the inclosure and minutelj surveyed these 
antique ruins round and round. On minnte in- 
spection the following seenisto be the best fdea 
I could form of the whole plan of this Pj^raffli- 
dal Tennple ; I call them Pj ramidal, from Ihe first 
appearance from without of the Tont e EriscmMe 
of llie strucfure, and also of the cavitj form 
ed b}' tiie roof within. 

24. — The Tetnple has been in its original Plan 
built on a square foundation, from whose 
Base arose the upper part, to which a flight 
of steps ascended perhaps nine, ten, or twelve 
feet ; this temple or apartnient, elevated about 
twelve feet, had three openings or apertnres 
South, North and West, but none on the Erist 
whicb appears siugular ; this Charaber, twea- 



20 NARRATIVE OF A JOURNEV 

ty feet square^ occupies the whole body of the 
Temple, nor (^id it appear to have any of the 
smaller apartments that in the rest are detached 
froni the sides. 

25. — The aperfares or Windows did not 
however lye on thefloor^ for Ihough the whtile of 
it is covered with heaps of stones that have fallen 
fiom the inward coating, I could just perceive 
close below the Sonth and North apertures the 
top of an Arched Door, which I apprehend must 
have led fiom below to the actual flooring.^ — 
Above these Windows the vault springs up al eight 
feet above the bottom origiaally composed of 
regular row§ of stones, laid one over the other 
andprojecting tiil they reach the top, allowing 
thirty feet for thirty stones ; so tliat the height 
of tliis Pyiamidal vault within is near forty feet 
exclusive of the height from the original floor — 
the walls were twelve feetthick at the apertures. 
Great part of the inner coating of the Temple 
having tumbied in and laying heaped on 
the floor, the interior structure of the ma- 
sonry is disclosed, and shews that no ce- 
ment wliatever was used, the stones having 
been cut and fitted to each other, proba- 
hly in the quarry — As they are at present^ they 



• 



TO EXAMINE THE REMAINS, &C. 21 

scem as if rcady to tumble iii on the least nio- 
tion, and it is not without awe that one pcr^ 
ccives, on loóking up, a thousand heavy blocks 
held by little visible force, just ready to fall 
and crush and ovcrwhelm the curious visitor, 
In its original state^ judging from the re- 
mains, it appeafs to have formcd a re^ulaf 
pyramid reversed to the very brow of z 
single stone entirely plain. An opening near 
the top admiis light from the East, but I am 
not certain if it was originally so, and if it 
wanted this light the funnel must have been 
impenetrably dark — the whole of this cham* 
ber of darkness was entirely plain and de- 
void of ornament. — Nor could ï perceive any 
Image or Sculpture within or without, though 
itis probable that the outside coating was orna- 
niented in its original state with some of those 
chaste designs that we find in the rest. — I am 
led to suppose this from the vast number of brokea 
niouldings we found built up in the stone-walls of 
the inclosure, on one of which I particularly ob- 
served a part of the frequent running Arabesque 
pattern ; the stones that formed the inside coating 
were seldom more than one foot high and two 
or three long ; vast numbers were not more than 
a foot in Icngth ; but some large blocks were 
visible in tbc heap on the floor^ though on the 



22 NARRATIVE OF A JOURNÈV 

whole we saw none of those stupendous bloek^ 
thatexcite our surprize in the Carnatic Temples ; 
thestones were generally dark^ but manj of thera 
"white and grey, of the softer kind of the Solo 
stone, and the freshness of the color might per- 
haps be ovving to their having been built up a 
iiew ; the marks of the chipping kuife were 
\isible on many. 

On viewing this Èdifice from without we ean 
frame no just idea of its original form, asfrom the 
■\vorking of the Banian which has sapped its 
strength and shades it on all sides^ and from the 
dilapidation of the original coating^, nothing can 
be seen but a confused hill of stones^ foiming an 
aukvvard Pvraniidal heap^ on near approach ex- 
hibiting the three narrow openings through the 
g'loomy shade of leaves and branches — with dif- 
ficultj clearing awajapassagCj I elambered over 
heaps of stonesto these narrow openings. — Ithink 
it is probable tliat the stair case entered below 
the heap and is now no longer visible. On clam- 
bering over a heap of this kind and entering bj 
the Western aperturc, 1 fonnd mjself at once 
in this chamber of stone^ on a hillock of square 
masscs tumbled together as they feil froni Ihc 
vaultabovCj which, on looking up, threatened <o 
pour a shower of pondcrous blütks unon thö 
curieus traveller. 



TO EXAMINE THE REMAINS^ &C. 23 

After exploiing this intcrcstin^ vaultj wliile I 
could not help thinking of the Pyramids of 
Egypt, I scarched cautiouslythrough the bushes 
withiii the stone incU)sure of aboiit tvvo hundred 
yards, vvhich contains it ; I observed on the East 
face two joints of a Circular Fillar of two 
and a half feet Igng and the Capital of the same ; 
from whence I conjecture that a piilar of tvventy 
feet high might have stood here, as well as ori 
the west side where joints of a sinillar nature 
were found— -from no other vestiges appearing 
I conclude there were only two pillars near the 
place indicated in the plan A. — Few ornaments 
appear on these stones ; no figures ; the Arabes- 
que has been mentioned already ; some circular 
fractured pieces gave indication of a greater 
degree of ornament, which perhaps belonged to 
a smaller Temple ^vithin the north west angle of 
the inx:losure, denoted by a heap of stone. — With- 
out also were numero us remains of staue ia 
walls, and among them I observed ene of the 
Javanese burying-places or Cramats, where the 
Sepulchre was of stone or wood. The size of 
the trees that have overgrown these Temples are 
sufficiënt indications of a great age. 

While I was employed in examining the ruins, 
oiir ancient Conductor had discovered th-s 



24^ NARRA.TÏVE OF A JOURNEY 

Batu Tulis he had originallj mentioned, and au 
amateur can only feel anj sensation similar to our's^ 
on iinding at lasta monument in our reach> that 
promised to throvv the light of written evidence oa 
these interesting remains. — ït was in faet to all 
intents ci real Hindu Sassanum, of grey granite, 
a stone not observed in Java, co^red with char- 
acters in fair and legible letters of the real 
Devanagri. Unfortunatelv ït had been broken 
into three pieces, and one of them was missing, 
but it is presumed enough remained to discoyer 
or lead to something bejond mere hints, if these 
characters contain any of the languages of In- 
dia. I had fortunatelj oiled paper with me^ and 
the draftsman was instantly set to work to take 
the Fac Simile, as soon as thedifficulty of getting 
some Chunam was overcome ; meantime the 
Natives sought with assiduity, stimulated by a 
promised gratuity, for the rest of the inscription, 
and though they were not lucky enough to find 
it, their toil was rewarded by two small biocks 
inscribed with characters apparently of the same 
kind. 

The weather still continuing heavy and the 
sun obscured with some prospect of rain, we fol- 
iowed our Conductor to the hills that lie south 
of Brambana. in quest of aGoa, or Cavern, a$ 



TO EXAMINE THE REMAINS, &C. 25 

I undorstood it, and of the Krattan of an an- 
cient Raja; in ciossing the plain ficlds undcr 
culture and flooded^ we were repeatedly obiigrd 
to get out of our chairs and trudge through the 
jnud for thedistanceof a mile. Tliis range of hills 
runs in a direction nearly South West, parallel 
to the piain or valley of Brambana^ and in height 
and appearance resembles sonie of those low 
ridges we meet wilh in the Deckan, wherc the red 
Porous Stone tcrminates in a soft calcareous sub- 
^tancCj as near Toljapoor^ Culburga^ &c. on as~ 
cending the side of the hili we met masses of 
grevish stone of this calcareous spixies, which 
seem to be of Volcanic Origin, below 
the first layers of which we sometimes observed a 
\ein of brittle earth, whitish^ fractured bv manj 
lines. — The first attempt of our Guides to go 
Strait forward being erroneous, we returned, and 
^vere conducted along the brow of the ridge^ ia 
a drizzling rain, for about two miles, wliich 
howeverthe toil and rain, indiiced us to reckon at 
three ; at last we were led off by a winding path 
cut among the luxuriant herbagc and young 
teak trees, by a kind of opening in the ridge, 
which finallv terminated in an ascent to a wall 
and mass of rock, into which is cut a small 
chamber of about four ïeti and a half high^ 
twelve feet by nice, vrith a wide dcor, half 



26 IvMïlRATIVE OF A JOURNEY 

filled up with stones ; in the back part is a niche 
designed. perhaps, for sleeping, or for an Altar— ? 
the stone is evidentij of the Taöa kind, and has 
been eut when soft ; above are the traces of a 
foundation designed. The bed of rock appears 
cut beyond this chamber into perpendicular fac- 
ings, whereofl the marks of the sharp Instruments 
are very evident ia the soft stone ; further on 
^ve met another chamber, but smaller, andnear it 
also was a square basoa of water, cut into the 
rock ; as we ascended we met several stages of 
rock cut perpendicularly ; in one place a series 
of steps formed a stair-case. 

Of the use of these Chambers the Natives could 
givenoinformationnor form any conjecture; Ihad 
some obscure recollection of the Tombs of some 
ancient Kings beingin the hills near Brambana, 
but they could teil nothing of it ; the universal 
Trada resounded to every query ; they say that 
the Susunan and Sultan^, when «mbarrassed 
or melancholy, retire to these ceMs, and shut 
themselves up for eight days in austere fasting 
and contemplation — whatever may be in this, it 
is extremely probable that they might be intend- 
ed for some such purpose, which the provision of 
water in the cell seems to corroborate, and also 
the contemplative Jain Sa^iiassi, represented in a 



tÖ EXAMINE THE REMAINS, &C. 27 

t)osture of medialion dircctly facing the first 
cell. 

We were now conducted by a circuitous route 
to the Royal Krattan, to wbich we were literally 
obligcd to cut our way ; the path winded 
back and brougbt Us in the hoUow over 
several blocks of cut stone, the ruins of dilapi- 
dated walls ; ultiraately we came to a stone-wall 
built of blocks of large dimensions regularly cut ; 
16 or 20 feetbeyond which, we arrived at ano- 
ther, facing a terrace, the scite of the Krattan, 
which is entirely overgrown with bushes and 
luxuriant verdure^ grass and trees ; it w^as in vain 
to go further; the rain increased; it was gettjng 
late and the forest grew on our hands; a hugö 
trunk irapeded further progress^ and v/e return- 
ed from the hollow which bounded this side of 
the area, without being able to discover its plau 
or extent. From the facing of the basement, 
however. it was easv to see that the structure had 
been rcgularly designed and on a magnificent 
plan; the number of blocks cut and chisselled 
appearing among the bushes, confirmed this, and 
I am convinced that in the dry season the original 
form of this palace might be traced by its ruins. 

It was observabic that the further we ad vane- 
ed up the hill aiid >Yilliin the hollow, the rocks 



NAtlflAttVÉ 01? A jróunNÉY 

ör indüfated TufTa more and more resemblèd 
the Culburga, Calliani and Bezoara veins of 
stone ; and I do not hesitate to aver, that we 
here foimd the Quarries^ where all the immense 
materials required for the City and Temp les of 
Brambana^ and even f^r other Cities also, might 
have been found. 

This discovery also corroborates the tradition of 
a City being here founded by a Foreign Colony, 
whose Artists being ingenious, chose a spot near 
to the best materials; this circumstancc also bas 
some analogy to tbe observation of so many Ca- 
verns^ Sculptures and Architectural Decorations 
being found in the vicinity of great Capitals^ 
and of Quarries of ready wrought stone. Be« 
zoara^ Ellora^ Canara^, Curla, Mavellipooramj 
and finally Brambana bear evidence to this fact; 
and if we sbould discover the same stile, drape*- 
ry^ andemblems, in each of these places, wc mis^ht 
suspect that in the same Government, Empire 
and People, these marks of refined superior skill 
in Architect originated. Might not Guzerat 
furnish some lights on this subject ? 

We descended the Hill about half past one^ 
and returned througb the mire and rain, a good 
deal fatigued^ to the China-maii's D welling at 
Brambaua. 



TO EXAMINE THE REMAÏNS, &C. 29 

The evenina; being fair, we proceeded on tbc 
great road S. W. towards Djocjocartaj to examine 
the antiquities on that side, particularly two 
Temples which I had observed on the 24th, 
26thanLl29th December, on my waj to and 
frora that Residencj. We crossed the river 
Cali Upas about six hundred yards from the 
Chinaman's house or pagger, where the liraitsof 
the aucient Brambana extended ; and after pass- 
ing about three hundred yards, observed a large 
Statue in a field to the left frora the road, which 
I found to be a naked figure with acurled head- 
dress exactly resembling the Jain figures on the 
coast ; though in a sitting posture^ looking to 
the road, and the north, it was easily discovered 
from its size^ which in this position is about five 
feet, of a hard dark stone ; behind the hedge 
covered with weeds, were the ruins of two others 
overturned — we advanced to the next rivulet 
where a party of wretched diseased mendicants 
are usually stationed, with hideous countenances 
destroyed by disease, and more like spectres thaa 
human creatures — they appear to live in huts 
close to this spot^ or rather drag out a wretched 
existence, and whenever we approach theyassail 
our feelings with the most piteous cries — here 
ca the left I found the two Images that had 



30 NARRATIVE OF A JOURNEY 

attracted my notice on the former journey cïose 
to the road. One of them a plain Jain figiire 
cross legged, with its hands resting, the palm? 
turned up, on the soles of the feet ; it appears 
to be entirely naked and with the curly 
bead. The other appears to me to represent 
some person of rank rather than a devotee, 
from the rich ornaments wbich decorate the 
arms, neck and waist — its right hand is placed 
on the thigh ; the left placed behind the left 
thigh in a hanging posture; on the head an or- 
namented covertitre, perhaps a crown — both are 
on flat pedestals and about the same height, three 
and a half or four feet — between these were 
placed two small pieces^, one of a grotesque 
form, the other I believe a decapitated sraall Jain 
figure. All thé^e figurea bespeak the vicinity 
of some Temple, where probably they were 
placed, excepting No. 24, which from its size 
must bave been fixed where we found it. 

After crossing a rivulet which runs from a 
spring not eight hundred yards to the right, 
something struck me among the hedges to the 
left, not two hundred yards, distant where l 
found close to a hedge, a statue of much the same 
countenance, size and decorations as the gigantic 
Porters before the Northern Temples ; it knelt 



TO EXAMINE THE REMAINS, i&C. 31 

on one knee, leaning the right arm on a short 
thick mail or club, round the left a Serpent 
winded or clung — its position rather leaning 
forward and inclining to the left; while its 
companion, which we immediately after found, 
leaned forward inclining to the right— both the§e 
figuresseemed bjtheir countenance^ position and 
half inclined, half forward expression and 
gesture, leaning on their clubs, to be watching 
with assiduity the approach of any profane foot to 
the Temple; which we immediately after found 
behind them, and towards the road, but I must 
Bot omit that these four figures differed frora 
the former in having no coronet or other orna- 
ment around their head; the curled hair waa 
loose, neatly parted on the forehead ; be- 
hind it flowed down over the neck into three 
rows of curls carefully arranged, and very much 
resembling those in which the Persian Monarchs 
and figures are represented in the Persepolitaa 
aatiquities. 

It may also be observed here that the counte- 
nance of these figures rather inclined to the Eu- 
ropean, withanaquiline nose, and more regular 
features, than the Negro-staring visages of the 
Northern Teraple, 



32 KARRATIVE OF A JOURNEY 

Of the Temple bebind nothing reniained but se- 
veral great round pedestals ( and capitals ) of seve- 
ral large pillars, forming the enceinte of an oblong 
structure, and several blocks and fragments of 
stones of a large size — -no vestiges of a walI ; 
I ara uncertain whkh part of these were capi- 
tals^ or pedestals — if all the latter^ a considerable 
diiference existed in the formation of each — a 
mound formed by a kind of diteh inclosed these, 
and had such effect in preventing their being 
seen from the road^ and is so completelj ruined, 
that it cannot be observed without approaching 
immediately to it. 

As it was drawing late^ we hastened without 
further examination along the road towards the 

further Temple ; it is not 

above two hundred jards from the road^ separat- 
ed from it by the surrounding Paddy fields; 
the several s^tones of its structures being still 
entire, althougli the ontward coating has been 
defaced, it is seen at some distance, but oversha- 
dowed by the branches and leaves of the bane- 
ful Banian in such a manner as io obscure a 
great part of the composition ; enough however 
remains visible to exhibit to the traveller on the 
road the ruins of a real Hindu Temple, such as 
we find sometimes on the confiitiies of Bednore, 



TO ËXAMINE THE REMAINS, &C. 33 

Canara and the West Piovlnces on the Toom- 
bodra. 

In these interestine; mins are seen on a 2:radu- 
ated order of basement^ stones^ pilast^rs^ niches, 
statues and apertnres, shaded and obsciired by 
thick branches and foliage, vvhich finallj crown 
the top, and leave the inquisitor at a loss to de- 
termine the ultiniate crowning of the original 
structure. 

We found it, like the others^ surrounded bj a 
ditch and mound close to the walls ; which I 
rather notice as I am of opinion that this ditch 
has been dug for the purpose of destrojing the 
edifice ; not bj undermining, the most obvious 
way, but from the fanatic motive of defacing 
and destroying the sculpture by lire, which has 
been evidently applied to all. Accordingly we 
find the lower part of the ordonance or base- 
ment defaeed, cracked and in many places ruin* 
ed ; and this operation here has particularly af- 
fected the two projecting parts on the East and 
West, inso much that nearly the wholehasfallen 
down and exhibits the truer scction of the 
whole wall and vault above, from top to bottom 
of their outward aisles, by which it appears that 
the roof within was carried up by stages of 



M NARRATIVE OP A JOÜRNEY 

square blocks placed over each other and pro* 
jecting inwards in regular order. 

The projections on the East and West ends 
are however entirC;, and we find they contain 
each a smailer Temple^ which had no communi- 
cation with the central or great Temple.— 
Although the walls are much cracked and de- 
faced by the effects of the fire and of the vorai- 
cious destructive Banian^ jet enough remains to 
thew the beauty and chaste stile that decorated 
the original structure, the only part left in 
doubt being the crowning, which probably 
might be yet traced in the hot season^ when the 
luxuriant foliage could m<)re easily be renioved. 

On attentive examination we jfind the basement 
as usual in manner of a pedestal^ with a series of 
filiets, ribbandsand corner all plain— surraounted 
by the corps de Tedifice, which is terminated by 
a second series of fillets^ &c. This corps de 
1' edifice bas only one door in front, the South, 
and one at each end, East and West. On each 
side of these doors the middle space is occupied 
by a niche, in each of which a statue stood 
in stile and attitude resembling the figures 
of Mavelliporam, all hearing diflferent objects 
apparently oÖerings rather thaa symbols-^the 



TO EXAMINE THE REMAINS, &C. 35 

sides had also niches of the same kind, so that 
about twelve niches filied the space around. — 
The second story also appeared to have niches 
of lesser height, in two of which we could per- 
ceive small sitting naked Images, apparentlj of 
Jain, On either side of these niches the space 
was occupied by a series of pilasters and long 
divisions, filied with a running arabesque border 

of Roses the niches were termin- 

ated by arches in what is usually, though evi- 
dently erroneously, called the Gothic stile— and 
above this the monstrous head with gaping 
mouth, tusks and staring eyes, which we find the 
constant ornament or rather symbol of these 
Teraples, and which I have a strong suspicioii 
bas some symbolical meaning, as we find no other 
of the customary symbols of the Hindüs than 
that which I think is called the Yali, and that 
of the Gandarvas on another Temple. In this 
corps de \' edifice in front south was the stair case 
Portico, of which only two side Arches remain, 
where the Temple was entered by a plain door 
ofthree feet; the body within was cntirely cased 
with plain out blocks of about nine inches high, 
devoid of all ornament whatever to the height 
of about thirty feet ; from this square of twenty 
feet arose an eight sided vault of pyramidal 



36 NARRATIVE OF A JOüIlNEr 

shape, formed as above^ of exactlv squared stone, 
of forty or forty-five feet in two stages. The 
whole maj be coniputed at seventy feet from 
the pavement below. Th? roof is open above 
at present, and not closed like the generalitj of 
the small Teniples, but whether it was originaily 
so I ani not able to say, though I am rather in- 
clined to think it might have been designed to 
illuminate this immense cavity, which has no 
other light. 

Fronting the door and the south is the great 
Altar, plainly terminated with a plain cornice^ 
and at each end, where a flight of steps leads up, 
decorated with an Elephant's head on one stage, 
and that of a monster on the second. In this ap- 
pendage ofan Altar/the Temples we observe 
differ entirely from the Bramins, as well as in 
the want of Anti-sacellum. On the whole 
these general observations may be made, that 
simplicity, chastity of stile, and an aversion to 
superfluous ornament, distingiiish the Rites and 
Temples of this religion, whatever it was. Here 
we find no paltry niches for stink ing lamps, no 
soot or vestige of oil burningand soiling the in- 
terior. — No accumulation of doors, recesse», 
monstroiis fiffures and obscene svmbols.— AU 
is Uuity, Light and Truth. 



TO EXAMINE THE REMAINS, &C. 37 

The four lateral chapels or vaults were roof- 
ed in the same stile, but square, and without 
apertures above. 

The Eastern chapel was equally plain ; had 
onij one aperture^ the door, fronting which wa« 
an Altar ; at each end an Arched niche plaim 
and empty. On the floor we found two Imagea 
about two feet high, decapitated, but evidently 
from their nuditj and sitting posture, intended 
to represent Jain. — One had a snake sculptured 
clinging round bis arm — a peculiaritj never be* 
fore observed, probably indicating the purity 
and innocence of the represented. 

On the outside, above the door, in a nicbe, is 
placed a sitting fignre, naked, which appears 
rather like a female ; she holds a flowec 
in one hand; the right hand held up. 
On each side of the door, between the cornsr 
pilasters and door-way, is a niche arched at top, 
in the Gothic stile, within each of which stands 
a male figure much rautilated; but still exhi- 
biting evident proofs of elegance in the outline 
and execution ; the Head-dress long; the 
drapery or costume light ; the attitude graceful, 
—^something like a stand on one side — no war- 
like arms on any part of the building. 



38 KARRATIVE OF A JOÜRNEY 

Following the building to the left^ we passed 
to the front through a small Arch, which pro- 
bably formed the third of this Portico, but the 
lest have given waj and torn ofF the whole of 
the vault from the top, strewing the terrace and 
stair case with the mins. The interior apart- 
ment has been described alreadj. 

The west end is of the same form and dimen-» 
sions as the east. — The Temple here was emp- 
ty. — Above the door a sitting Jain figure in a 
niche, but determinedly male — statues on either 
side of the door in the niche— that on the right 
holding a flöwer in oae hand — the marks of the 
iire verj evident on the corner of the base. 

The west front shevvs the same order as the 
east — the aati-apartnient torn away shews the roof 
and vault. There being no door to the interior 
here, the space is occupied bj a compartment, in 
which a grand vase is seen with flowers and 
leaves from its mouth overshading the sides. 
Two small Jain sitting figures are seen in the 
niches above in the second story. 

The Crowning or top of the whole is ruinous, 
and the fiill of the two south and north project- 
ing parts have also taken away much of the 
outer coating with them ; the overgrowth 
of the Banian also shading it, binders its true 



rO EXAMINE THE REMAINS> &C. 39 

sliape from being known, and it is really very cu- 
rious to observe howthistreehas penetrated bej 
tween tbe minutest junctions of the stone, and haa 
gradually sapped and entwined the whole; pres- 
sing closely from without against some parts of 
the wallj then disappearing, and suddenly after- 
wards it is seen in various forms^ sometimes like 
a rope^ sometimes like a knotted branch, cora- 
municating silently and secretly the infection to 
every part, till at last we find it overtopping the 
whole^ proudly viewing the magnificent ruin it 
has helped io forni^ and as in pity embracing 
and clinging about the beauteous and venerable 
ruin of former grace^ preserving it yet a little 
longer, a few centuries, from irretrievable des* 
truction.-— Like a secret foe, insidiously decor- 
ating the beauty it is working to destroy, and 
apparently reluctant to complete the work, in 
«miles suiveying the ruin it has made. 

1 now retraced my steps and turned off 
to another ruinous ediiicej which on in- 
spection appeared to be in better preservation 
than any of the other edifices. In fact I could 
here find nothing to induce me to suppose it 
was a Temple (see the description of it the 
foUowing day. ) 



40 NARRATIVE OF A JOURNEY 

Ten steps lead up io the only door-wayj 
"which is in front — at the bottom of the door- 
posts were two good representations of Ele- 
phants with square umbaries; over the hinder 
part of the Elephant a nian leans with his face 
directlytowardsyou^ apparentlj asleep, but hold- 
ing somewhat — by these steps we passed into 
the interior, which consists of one central and 
two side chambers^ neatly faced with cut plain 
stones^ and surmounted above by a plain cut al- 
cove or pyramidal roof of cut stone ; on either 
side a door leads to each room, which is arched, 
but at top terminated by a flat stone. — These 
rooms had no Altars, Images or indications of 
religious worship being performed in them. ït 
would seem as if rafters had been used or de- 
signed, from the vacaiicies left in the freize or 
above the corniGC; and some of the spaces with- 
in are occupied by niches answerin^ to the 
apertures of doors, windows, &c. (see plan.) 

January 21. 
In the morning Mr. Knops and myself visit- 
ed some Javanese Torabs or Kramats — they are 
surrounded by an old wall and well shaded ; 
these TombS;, which are frequent, have 
nothing remarkable, they are marked by a 
wooden frame above ground^ consisting of fouir 



TO EXAMINE THE REMAINS, &C, 41 

pieces morticed into eacli othcr, and usnally 
further distinguished by two small woodea 
posts,one at each end^ without letters or inscrip- 
tions. Hence we were conducted to the foun* 
tain tb at forms the source of the Cali Binny 
river, Ijing north of the road about one quarter 
of a mile, and close to the residence of^some 
person, for it is difficult here to distinguish a 
village, as they are all formed of bamboo buts, 
yards and inclosures — close to this we saw the 
water gushing out of a hollow bason formed ia 
the steep face of a rising of sand stone; it forms a 
limpid pool of such clearness that the least partiele 
may be seen through it; an ornamented sculp- 
tured stone on each side^ placed amongst several 
rude stones, seemed to indicate it had been for- 
merly thought worthy of ornamgnts no longer 
preserved. 

In the evening I went with the Draftsman 
to take some sketches and complete my ob- 
servations on the objects we had seen yesterday 
on the south west road^ hut as it grew late I 
hastened to that of Cali Sari, which is close 
to the Nigri near the roadj and which had not 
jet been sufficiently examined. 

On close inspection it appears to consist of 
i?ue oblong square edifice, without wings or 



42 NARRATÏVE OF A JOÜRNEY 

Piazzas, and being in much better preServatiori 
tiian the rest, I was enabled to form a clearer 
idea of it, though it is much disfigured bj the 
grov/th of the Banian^ and the fire that has been 
applied to its base. — ït appears to have stood in 
a square Area, inclosed bj a wall, and certainly 
resembles a house more than a Temple. 

The Drafisman with some difficulty had time 
to sketch off the general outline, biit could not io 
mj satisfaction, in the dark^ take off the outline 
of two elegant female figures on its south end 
holding Tulips. 

The base is ornamented with a pedestal, and 
the body is divided into compartments by one 
door and two windows (seeNo ) between 
these are ornamented pilasters, with niches be- 
tween, containing sculptured figures carved in 
the finest attitude, over the crown of which are 
two ornamented Yalies with hideous stare- — the 
same at the ends — and on the west side, for it 
fronts the east, the compartment answering to the 
door in the east, is adorned with a great urn 
guarded by small figures (Gandarvas) with 
the logs of Eagles; one of them seems to 
kiss his thumb, which is placed to his lips in 
devotion — the attitude, sculptures and high 
crowns of these figures resemble those of Ma- 



TO EXAMINE THE REMAINS^ &C. 43 

velliporam greatly^ but no Braminical sjmbols 
are disoernible; some figures seemed io 
bear on their hands something like a half 
cocoanut, and each evidently appeared io 
hold something expressive of avve and venera- 
tion ; another holds a pot in bis rigbt hand, anl 
a very elegant figure, adorned with exceedingly 
well defined rows of Pearls falling carelessly 
below bis breast, bears a Tulip in bis hand. 
The attitudes of the whole are most elegant. 

The evening fair ; Peak of Merapi olear in 
the morning; at 5 p. M. bid in clouds^ but still 
fair — in retiiming, though late, caused sketches 
to be taken of the outline of the Jain and other 
naked figures. 

At 7 p. M . I returned to the Chinaman's, fa- 
tigued though pleased, but by no means satisfied ; 
but it was necessary we should now prepare se- 
riously for departure, as the Battors might no 
loiiger bc retained, and my Lascar was getting 
very ill of a dysentery. 

We now sat down to our evening meal, and 
while my companion was investigating, tlirough 
the medium of a Chinese Translator, the tradi- 
tion of Lorajongra, and the building of the nine 
hundfed and ninety nine Temples of Cali Sari, 
I sat down to own the receipt of an express 



44 NARRATIVE OF A JOURNET 

from the Minister of Djojocarta^ wbich inclosed 
v/ith four citos, his own answer of the 14th to 
mine of the llth^ sent to Samarang in place of 
Solo, and returned back bj express on the 17th 
by Sooracarta past Clattan, and so to Djojo- 
carta, and now on therebonnd reached us at last. 
In my answer I declined visiting Djojocarta, as 
it was now too late. 

The walls of this edifice at Cali Sari are seven 
feet thick ; the centre apartment twenty one feet 
hy nineteen. The two stories, estimated by the 
stones, thirty six feet, and the upper crown or 
attick about twelve — Total forty eight feet in 
heighth. The whole seems to have one of those 
Ditches round it that I have described, and so 
elose to the buildings that it could never have 
been desi2:ned for their security, but rather for 
their destruction. 

Of these figures in general itmay be observed, 
that the faces, shape and air of the feraales are 
Süigularly handsome, delicate and beautiful; in 
no manner resembling the Physiognomy, habits 
or costume of any of the present Inhabitants of 
Java — the whole is most beautiful ; an inimit- 
able softness in the lines of the countenance, 
and the half bending inclination of the head, 
the uxildj the modest countcnance^ incliuing with 



ro EXAMINE THE REMAINS, &C. 45 

a bashful timidity, while the body and limbs 
are advancing' in movemcnt^ has a fine effect ; 
llie iight Draperj and Trowsers may be 
tiaced over the limbs to the ankles; the girdles 
tied in knois, gracefully flowing considerably 
below the waist — The manner in which the 
Trowsers are wrought so lightly, thatthe shape 
of the limb is fnlly delineated, particulariy ex- 
hibited the skill of the artists— -the habits cer- 
tainly are not Greeian — the femalc countenance 
particulariy modest^ and apparently with awe 
looking to some object of veneration, though 
the only one pereeptible is the urn in the center 
tompartment. The head-dress high and none 
of the hair appears falling down It is to be 
regretted that most of these figures are fractur^ 
ed and damaged, but enough remains to shew 
the original beauty of the whoïe. The ornaments 
are necklaces and armlets. The north side is 
more complete, and this Temple or edifice is 
in the greatest preservation of the whole. The 
more we view these figures, the more we are 
puzzled to gness whence the sculptors could 
derive their knowledge of this art. It is to be 
much regretted that the Banian tree has insinu- 
ated itself into them all, and threatens in time to 
sap and destroy the whole. At times a simple 



46 NARRATÏVE OF A JOURNEV 

piece^ like a part of a cable, is seen appearing 
and disappearing, and finally we firid it, after 
working- up through the wliole edifice, throwing 
a brancli wliich runs over the wholeedifice, and 
shading the crown, wkh its numerous leaves^ 
from all view or inspection of its shape. • 

li was not without reluctance I left these in- 
teresting ruins ; and while I was survejing them 
with mixed emotions of regret and pleasure^ it 
was impossible to forbear ruminating on the 
origin of edifices, so widelj different in their 
stiie from v^hat we are taught to expect in these 
countries at a remote Era, and so widelj differ- 
ent from their present state. As it maj perhaps 
assist some future enquirer^ it may not be amiss 
here to notice some general remarks that occur 
on this subject. 

J. — The walls of all these buildings have 
been built without anj natural cement^ mortar, 
bricks or anj of that rubbish that is usuallj 
emplojed to fill up the interior of walls. 

2. — ^The stones appear to have been previous- 
Ij cut and fitted to each other, perhaps in the 
quarry, connected by small projections, mortic- 
ed into the adjacent stonc. The stones are 
dark-colored, excepting the whitish stone ob- 
served in the southeni Tefiiple. 



TO EXAMINE THE REMAINS, &C. 47 

3, — xis in the western Tenipleof Cali Sari^ the 
whole of the outside walls^ sculptured fig'ureg 
and pedestals have been covered with a thin coat 
of fine plaister, the inside apartments also of the 
edilice at Chandi Sari have been plaistered in 
this manner. 

4. — The pointed Afch, called th#, Gothic, is 
found at the Temples of Chandi Si va, Chandi 
Sari, &c. and the south Tcmple (see No. ) 

5. — The resemblance of the great Altars to 
those of Christian Churches is striking (see 
No. ) 

6. — -The inexpressible delicate mild air, the 
symmetry^ the grace, the proportion of the 
fc'culpture is remarkable — they certainly seem to 
haTe some resemblance to some of the fig'ures at 
Mavellipooram and to some Images at Ellora. 

7, — Recollccting the tradition of a colony 

from Guzerat., might not a King be found there, 

or might not a search in the ruins of Nerwalla, 

or some of the ruined cities ia Guzcrat or 

Dwaraka, &c. be elucidating ? 

8. — -Recollecting the tradition of the JVIa- 
rashtra or Moodhi characters coming frora 
Lanka — the resemblance stated of the Javanese, 
the Moodhi and Devanagri characters, might 
Tiot some light be deiived from a comparison of 



4^ KARRATIVE OP A JOURNEt 

Guzeraf, Marashtra and Javanese charactera 
and scuiptures ? 

9. — The stile of architecture of the Temple 
resembles also those of Bednore and of Jakaa 
Achari — it should be recollected that a colony 
from Dwaraka is there also recognized — the 
great urn is also an accompaniment. 

10. — ïn these remarks I have not taken into 
the account the presence of several Images evi- 
dentlj Jaiü ; but it is to be remarked thej are 
all sittino' — none standinsr are met with. nor anv 
gigantic images^ as at Sravana Bellagolla^ Carcul 
&c. but Dr. Hunter assures me he has heard of 
a gigantic statue in the province of Cadiri. 

11. — On the other hand, though some Images 
appear evidently Boudhist^ and though tradition 
supports itj \ve yet find no evidence of the 
Boudh worship exclusively, nor that derivable 
from the gigantic figures recumbent in the 
Temples of Ceylon, &c. That we find no histori- 
cal figures or representations of groupes isequal- 
ly applicable to the worship of Boudh and of 
Jain; evidently the religion observedherej what- 
cver it was, was less burthened with fictitious 
symbols than either of them in the state they are 
hitherto known — Qiiery — Are we yet sufSci- 
ently acquaiated with their distinction and 



TO EXAMINE THE RSMA^ÏNS^ &€. 49 

thosc of Sintu in Japan — and ma,y iioi Sinta 
liave sonie resemblancc to Jain ? 

12 — It is particuL'irlj to be observed that no 
synibols of Vedantic mjthology appear at 
Brambana, save the ïinage of Gajaputtyand of 
Embok Loro Jongrang or Bovani — perbaps the 
Janus and the Cvbcle, 

13. — No synibols of Sewan, no combats nor 
ad ventures of Kishen^, no Linnam, no Buil, nor 
wandering of Sewo, no Saniassees, no Cliacra^ 
110 Snake vvorship — no Sculptures wbat- 
ever connected with the present Hfndü mjlho- 
logy, the above excepted^ and perbaps the fi- 
gures of MonkeySj wbich seem to resemble some 
of the adventures of the Ramayun, where Hana- 
munt and bis brother Apes traverse the forests 
in quest of Sita — this undoubtedly did belong 
to the ancient Temple. 

14. — On the whole it is evident that most of 
ihe Temples here did not belong to the Vedan- 
tic mythology — the inside of the Temples of the 
Aditum also prove it, as thcy are not soilcd by 
those disagreeable eiTects of oil and smoke that 
pollute the Bramin Temples — no stinking lamp 
appcars to have been burnt in them ; nor have 
they even those smal! niches that usually 



50 NARRATIVE Or A JOÜRNEY 

decorate the inner doors io receive the lamps ori 
festival nigbts. 

15. — The Bramin religion^ howevei% seems io 
have had its Temples in other places, as atOona- 
rang% where we fiad three Temples near the 
Crattan ; and at Salatiga, Bujalali and Solo, 
•\There niimeroiis Images of stone and metal in- 
dicate its prevalence. It is remarkable that the 
Images of Gaiiesha are not aecompanied bj the 
Rat — and the number of Images of Ganesha 
and of Bavani under one representation is equal- 
iv remarkable. 

16. — Of tbc evidence derived from architec- 
ture^ sculptiire, &c. \ye maj notice that no fi- 
gures of Lions are ever seen — of Elephants 
seldom — of Tvgers but once — the frequency 
of the Arabesqne Borders and of Roses — the 
frequent exhibiiion of the Lotus or Tulip 
weli carved. 

17. — No evidence of Snake worship was ob- 
served among tbese ruins, such as we meet in 
India, frequently sculptured on stones placed 
around the foot of a great tree, vet the word 
Naga is preservcd ; see the Tradition of Embok 
Loro Jongrang. The appearance of a Snake 
•winding round the arms of some of the gigantic 
Portcrs was also remarkable. 



to examine the- remains, &c. 51 

January 22, 
We were to have proceeded at 4 a. m. but we 
ïiad slept so well after our fatigues tbat it was 
six before we started, and our baggage had 
scarcely preceded us half an hour; we also re- 
niained somewhat longer to ^et a litter made 
up for a Madras Lascar that attended me^ 
whohad been so violentlv attached bv a bloody- 
fiux that it was impossibleforhim toride; wegot 
two of the Battors prevailed on to carrv him in 
this awkward convejance, or I should have been 
much at a h)ss to have got him off froni the 
Sultan's inhospitable domain. The morning 
was heavy and calm. The Mirapi peak was 
extremely clear at seven, and from i<s summit 
two or three columns of smoke were distinctly 
\isible ; a bank of Fog clung around the brow 
of the mountain one third down, which as the 
Sun arose^ gradually ascended, increasing its 
compass till about twelve^ when it had entirely 
"veiled the mountain. 

The Road as far as Clattau was tolerablv drv, 
and we walkeda good part of it, till interrupted 
by the channels cut across from one field to an- 
other. In these fields, all the varieties of Paddy 
cultivation, except sowing, might bc secu in a 
short compass; tillagC;, planting, transplanting. 



52 NARRATIVE OF A JOURNEY 

reaping or rather picking eachsheaf,one by one; 
the wbole of this was done by women^ wbo also 
exclusively officiate in the Bootbs on eacb side 
of the roads, where tea^ CofFee, Rice boiled in 
heaps, soups, vegetables, fruit^ nuts, betel, the 
eternal Tobacco and the never failing Opium 
are prepared ready forthenourishrnent, comfort, 
or intoxication of the weary travelier ; men, 
T^'omen, and children, riding pigmy borses. Bat- 
tors carrying Baskets on cross Bamboos, Troops 
of Cavalry in hoods, surmounted by long white 
Frencb Feathers, hoods ivhicb Motber Goose 
would not disdain to wear, diminutive Ja van 
Heroes, dressedin womeTi-s petti-coats below^ the 
"waist and naked above, hearing tremendous 
pikes, swords, guns, crisses sticking out a yard 
bebind, tbese were the objects wbich constantly 
presscd on our notice as we trudged along the 
tedious way. 

About nine we arrived at Fort Cbittan^ where 
we basfilv took some Tea : bad not our business 
liurried us on, we could not have been encour- 
aged to remaiii, nohvitbstanding the hospitality 
of the thrce Officei\there^ who, poor fellows 
themselves, were not very comfortably situafed. 

We arrived at Pakbus about 2 P. m. where 
our baggage bad just arrived, but there being 



"HO time for preparing a AVarm dinaer as intend- 
ed, we partook sonie of cold meat and tlie Chi- 
naman's Lilliputian Tea cups, and departed at 
one quarter before three — the road f f om hence 
to Carta-soora was still deep, the soil beingof a 
softei' and more teiiacious clav, and^ though 
much dried up since we past it on the 19th, was 
still deep in many places; but especially the 
green height crossed in our way to the junction 
of the road at Carta-soora, which is a black 
mouid producing no corn, and the very worst 
part of the road I had ever crossed, so deep, te- 
iiacious and clammy. To the right a Tank, bor- 
dered by an embankment and planted with trees, 
a feeble recollection of the Tanks of the 
Carnatic, and a Bungalo on a smali Island, ia 
place of the Temples we thcre sce in such 
insular situations. I hoped to have examined 
this prototype of a Country ever dear to me, in 
viewing the ruins of Carta-soora, but was dis- 
appointed ; for though we got out of our con- 
veyance and were conducted through many a 
desolate briek walled Court, within the inclosure 
of the brick rampart of the ancient Dallam, I 
found so little prospect of reaching in time this 
favorite spot, that I returned diigusted^ ihcd 
'di.d diiaDpoialed. 



-^< 



AN ESSAY 

OM TME OOFAS 

GR 

POÏSON TREE OF JAVA, 

ADDRESSED TO THE HONORABLE 

THOBIAS STAMFOJRÖ RAFFI.ES 

LIEUTENANT &OVERNOR. 



BY THOMAS HORSFIELD, M. D. 



COMMUNICA.TED TO THE SOCIETY bT TUE PREStDE2^T. 



JL HAVE proposed to myself in the followins' Es- 
say, to offer }ou a short account of the Oopas 
of Java. I feel some satisfaction in beiiig able, 
at a time when every subject relating; to this 
Island hasacquired adegree of interest, to furnish 
yon with a faithful description of the tree, made 
by myself on the spot where it irrows, and fo 
rehite its effects on the animal system bv experi- 
ments personally instituted and superintended ; 
and I üatter myself that the practical informa- 



3 AN ESSAY ON THE OOPAS, OR 

tion detailed in the following sheets, will refüle 
the falsehoods that have been publisjied concern- 
ing this subject at the same time that it will 
remove the uncertaintj in which it has been 
enveloped» 

The literary and scicntific world has in 
few instances been more grossly and impiident- 
Ij imposed upon than by the account of the 
Pohon Oopas, pubiished in Holland about the 
year 1780. The history and origin of this cele- 
brated forgery still remains amystery. Foerscli,, 
who put bis name to the Publication^ certainly 
was (according to infornniation I have received 
from creditable persons who have long resided on 
the ïsland) a Surgeon in the Dutch East India 
Company's service, about tbc time the account of 
theOopas appeared.* It wouid be in some de- 
gree interesti ng to become acquainted with bis 
cbaracter. I have been led to suppose that bis 
literary abilities were as mean as bis contenipt 
of truth was c-onsuramate. 

Having bastily picked up some vague infor- 
mation concerning the Oopas, he carried it to 
Europe, wherehis notes were arranged, doubtless 



* Foersch was a Surgeon of the thhd class at Samaran^ ia the 
year 1773. Ilis accomit of the Oopas Tree appeared in 1783. 



POISON TREE OF JAVA. 3 

bj a difft^rent hand^ in such a form, as by their 
plausibilify and appearaiice of truth, to be gene- 
rally creditel. 

It is in no small degree siirprizing that so 
palpable a falsehood sbould have been asscrted 
with so mucli boldness and have rernained so 
long without refiitution — or that a subject of a 
nature so curioiis and so easily investigated, re- 
lating to its principal Colony, sbould not have 
been enquired into and corrected by the natural- 
ists of the Molher Country, 

To a person in any degree acquainted wIth 
the Geography of the ïsland^ vi^ith the manners 
of the Princes of Java^ and their reiation to the 
Dutch Government at that period/ or with its 
internal history during the last 50 years^ the 
first glance at the account of Foersch must 
have e\inced its falsity and misrepreseutation. 
Long after it had been promulgated, and puh- 
lished in the diiferent Public Journals in most 
of the languages of Europe^ a statement ot facts^ 
amounting to a refutation of this account, was 
published in one of the volumes of the Trans- 
actions of the Batavian Society, or in one of its 
prefatory addresses. But not having the work 
at hand, I cannot with certainty refcr to it, nor 
shall I enter into a rcgular examiuation and ie- 



4 AN ESSAY ON THE OOPAS, OR 

futation of the Publication of Focrschy which 
is too coiitemplible to ment such aitention. 

But thoögh the account jnst mentioned, in 
so far as relates to the situation of the Poisoii 
Tree, to its efFects on the surrounding countrj, 
and to the applJcation said to have been made 
of the Oopas on crirninals in different parts of 
the ïsland, as well as the description of the Poi- 
sonous subfetance itseif, and its mode of coliec** 
tion, has been demonstrated to be an extravagant 
fori^ery, — the existence of a tree on Java^ froni 
whose sap a Poison is prepared, equal in fataiity, 
when thrown into the circulation^ to the strong» 
€st aniraal Poisons hitheito knovvn, is a fact, 
which it is at present my object to establish and 
to iilustrate. 

The tree which produces this Poison is called 
Antshar, and grows in the E'^stern extremity of 
the ïsland. B:^fore ï proceed to the descriptioa 
of it and of the effects produced by this Poison, 
I must premise a few^ remarks on the history of 
its more accurate investi«:ation, and on the cir- 
cumstances which have lately contributed to 
bring a faithful account of this subject before 
, the public. 

At the time I was prosccuting my enquiriea 
into the Butany and Natural Ilistery of ths 



POISON TREE CF JAVA. O 

Island on behalf of the Dutch Government, Mr. 
Leschennult de La Tou7\ a French Natiiralisf, 
was makiiig: a private collection of objpcts of 
Nafural History for tbc Governor of the North 
East Coast of Java. He shortly preceded me 
in my viüit to the Easteni District of the Island, 
and while I was on mv route from Sourabava in 
that direction, I received from hlm a communi- 
cation containing an account of the Poison Tree 
as he found it in the province of Blarabangan. 
I ani induced to make this statement, in order to 
concede^as far as regards mvscit^to mr, ijesctii^ 
naiilt de La Tour, in the fullest manner, the 
priority in obscrving the Oopas of Java. I do 
this to prevent any refiection, in case a claim to 
the discovery should be made at a future period : 
but I must be pcrmitted to add in justice to the 
series of cnquiries which engaged me and 
the manner in which they were carried on^ that 
the knowledge of the cxistence of this tree was 
by no means uncommon or secret in the District 
of Blamhangan, in the environs of Banyoo-wan- 
gee ; that the Commandant of the place,, a man 
of soraë curiosity and enquiry, was acquainted 
with it, aid that it conld not (in all probabilitv) 
have escaped the notice of a prrson, who made 
the \egetab'e productions an object of particular 



6 AN ESSAY ON THE OOTXS, OR 

enquiry, and noted with minute attention every 
thing that related to their history and operation. 

It is in fact more surprizing that a subject of 
so much notoriety in the District of Blambangan, 
and of so great celebrity and misiepresentation 
in every other part of the world, should so long 
have remained unexplored, than that it should 
fioally have been noticed and described; and 
since my visit to that Province I have more than 
once remarked the coincidence which led two 
persons of nations different from each other, and 
Trom that w^hich has been long in possession of 
the Island^ who commenced their enquiries 
without any previous communication and with 
different objects in view, within the period of 
about six months^ to visit and examine the Oopas 
Tree of Java. 

The work of Rumphuis contains a long 
account of the Oopas under the denomination of 
Arboo Toxicaria; the tree does not groNV on 
Aïuboina, and bis description Was made from 
the information he obtained from Macassar. 

His figure was drawn from a branch of that 
wliicli was cal led the male tree, sent to him 
from the same Place, and established the 
iilcntity of the Poison Tree of Macassar and the 
other Eaütcrn Islands with the Antshar of Java, 



rOISON TREE OF JAVA. « 

The account of this author is too extensive 
tobeabridged in this place, it concentiates all 
thathastill hic\y been published on this sub- 
ject; bilt the relation is mixed with many 
assertions and remarks of a fabuleus nature^ and 
it is high! ƒ probable that it was consulted in the 
fabrication of Foersch's story. It is, however, 
highly interêsting, as it gives an account of the 
eiFects of the poisoned darts, formerly employed 
in the wars of the Eastern Islands, on the humaa 
system, and of the remedies by which their effect 
was counteracted and cured. 

The simple gap of the Arbor Toxlcaria 
(according to Rumphuis) is harmless^ and re- 
quires the addition of ginger and several sub- 
stances analogous to it, such as Ledoory and 
Lampoegang, to render it active and mortal. 
In so far it agrees with the Antshar^ which ia 
its simple state is supposed to be inert, and before 
being used as a Poison, is subjected to a prrpara- 
tion which will be described after the history 
of the tree. The same effervescence and boiling 
which occurs on the mixture of the substances 
added to the milky juice by the Javanese in 
Blambangan, has been observed in the prepara- 
tioa of the Poisoaof Macassar^ and in proportioa 



S AN ESSAY ON THÉ OOFAS^ OR 

to the violen ce of these efifects the JPoison is 
supposed to be active. 

A Dissertation bas been published by Chrisp : 
Aejmlaeus at Upsal, which contains the sub- 
stance of the aceoimt of Rumphuis ; an extract 
from it is given in Dr. Duncan's Medic : Co- 
ment : for the year 1790, 2d vol. Vth. Decad. 

It appears from the account of Rumphuis 
that this tree is also found on Borneo^ Sumatrs 
and Bali. 

Besides the true Polson Tree^ the Oopas of the 
Eastern Islands and the Antshar of the Javanese, 
this Island produces a shrub, which, as far as 
observalions have hitherto been made, is peculiar 
to the same, and by a dififereut mode of prepara- 
tion, furnishes a Poison far exceeding the Oopas 
inviolence — lts name is Tshettik, and its speciüc 
description will succeed to that of the 
Antshar — The genus hasnot y et been diseovered 
ordescribed. 

Description of the Antshar 

The Antshar belongs to the twenty first class 
of LinnaeuS;,the Monoecia — The male and female 
flowers are produced in catkins ( Amenta) on the 
same branch, at no great distance from each 
ether — the female flowers are in general above 
the male. 



POISON TREE OF JAVA* 9 

The cliaracters of the genus are ; 

Male-flower — Calix consisting of several 
scales, which are imbricate. 

Corol none — Stamens Filaments raany, very 
short, covered hy the scales of the receptacle- 
anthers. 

The receptacle on which the Filaments are 
placed, has a conical forra, abrupt^ somewhat 
rounded above. 

Fem4le-flower— Catkins OTate, Calix con- 
sisting of a number of imbricate scales (genera!^ 
Ij morethan in the male) containing one flowen 

Corol, none. 

Pistil — Germ single, ovate, erect^ Style^ t^o, 
long, slender, spreading, Stlgmas simple, acute. 

Seed'Vesselj an oblong drupe^ covered with the 
calix. 

Scfd, an ovate nut with one cell, 

Specific Description. 
The Antshar is one of the largest trees in the 
Forest of Java. The stem is cylindrical, per- 
pendicular, and rises completely naked to the 
height of sixty, seventy or «ighty feet, — Near 
the surface of the ground it spreads obliquely, 
dividing into numerous broad appendages or 
wings, much like the Canarium commune and 



10 AN ESSAY ON THE OOPAS/ OR 

several others of our large Forest treos. It is 
covered with a whitish bark, sli2:littv burstino; 
in longitudinal farrows : near the groiind this 
bark is, in old trees, more tban balf ari inch 
thick, and, upon being v/ounded, yields plenti- 
fiüly the milky juice from which the celebrated 
poison is prepared. A puncture or incision 
being made in the tree, the juice or sap appears 
oozing out, of a yeliowish colour ; (somswhat 
frothy) from old trees, paler; and nearly white 
from young ones : when exposedtothe air its sur* 
face becomes brown. The consigtence very much 
resembles milk, only it is thicker, and viscid. 
This sap is contained in the true bark ( or cortex ) 
"which when puoctured, yieids a considerable 
quantily, so that in a short time a cup full may 
be collected from a large tree. The inner 
bark (orliber) is of a close fibrous texture, 
likc that of themoruspapyr2fera,B.ud whensep- 
arated from the other bark, and cleansed from 
the adhering particles, resembles a coarse piece 
of linen. It has been worked inlo ropes which 
are very sirong, and the poorer class of people 
employ the inner bark of younger trees, which 
is more casily prepared, for the purpose of mak- 
ing a coarse stuflf which they wear when werking 
in the fields, But it requires rauch bruising. 



POISON TREE OP JAVA. H 

wasliin^, and a lon^ imïTiersion in water before 
it can be used, and even when it appcars com- 
pletely parified, persons wearing this dress^, on 
being exposed to the rain, are affected with aa 
intolerable itching, wbicb renders tbeir flimsj 
covering almost iusupportable. 

It will appear from the account of the man- 
ner in whicb the poison is prepared, that the de- 
leterious qu^litj exists in the Gum^ a small por- 
tion of whicb stilladheringtotbebark^produces 
when it becomes wet^ tbis irritating effect^ and it is 
singular that tbis property of the prepared bark is 
known to the Javanese in all places wbere the 
tree grows ( for instance in various parts of the 
Provinces of Bangil and Malang^ and even at 
Onarang) wbile the preparation of a poison 
from its juice, wbicb produces a mortal effect 
when introduced into the body by pointed weap- 
ons, is an exclusive art of the Inhabitants of the 
Eastern extremity of the Island. 

One of the Regents in the Eastern districts 
informed me, that having niany years ago^ pre- 
pared caps or bonnets from the inner bark of 
the Antshar, wbicb were stiifened in the usual 
manner witb tbick rice water^ and handsomelv 
painted, for the purpose of decorating bis Man- 
tries^ tbey all decidedly refused to wear tbem. 



Ï2 AN ESSAY -ON THE OOPAS, OR 

asspitit g that it wouid cause their hair to fall 
out. 

The stem of the Antshar baving arrived at 
the beforementioiied height, sends off a few stout 
branch s_, whicli spreadiiig nearlj horizontally 
v^ith pveral irregular curves, divide ioto soialley 
branches and form a hemispberical, but Qot very 
regular cro wn, The external branches are short, 
have several unequal bends, and are covered 
witb a brown bark. 

The leaves are alternate^ oblong, heart shaped^ 
somewhat narrower towards the base, entire, 
Tvith a wavingor undulatedmargin^ whichsome- 
ilméi has a few irregular sinuosities. The longi- 
tudinal nervedivides the leaf somewhat obliqiie- 
]y_, and the iaferior division is generally the 
largcT. Thepoint is irregular, some are rounded 
at the end, others run oSfalraost abruptly to a short 
point. The upper surface is shining and nearly 
smooth : some widely dispersed short villi are 
observed on it ; the inferior surface is lightly 
rough, reticulated, and marked with oblique- 
paraHel veins. The pefioJe is short. The 
llowers are produced towards the extremity of 
the ouior branches, in \\ few scattered catkins— • 
iho comiTion pcdnncle of the niales is slender 
and long, that oï the females is shorter. 



POISON TREE OF JATA. 13 

Prêvious to the season of flowcring, about 
the bci^inning of June^ the tree sheds its Icaves, 
which rc-appear when the male flowers have 
completed the office of fecundation. It delighfs 
in a fertile and notvery elevated soil, and is only 
found 'm the hirgest Foresfs. 1 first met with it 
(the Antshar) in the Province of Poegar on my 
way to Banjoowangee ; in the province of 
Biambangan I visited four or five different trees, 
from which this description bas been made, 
while two of them furnished the jiiice for the 
preparation of theOopas. — The largest of these 
trees had, where the obliqiie appendages of the 
stem entered the ground, a diameter of at k^ast 
ten feet^ and where the regularlj round and 
straight stem began, the extent of at least tea 
feet between the points of two opposite append- 
ages at the surface of the ground, its diameter 
%vas fuU three feet. I have since found a verj tall 
tree in Passooroowang, near the baiindary of 
Malang, and verj latei)' I have discovered several 
youn^^ trees in the Forests of Japara, and one tree 
in thevicinity of Onarang. In all these places, 
though the Inhabitants are unacqnainted with the 
preparation and effoct of the poison, they dist- 
inguish the tree b y the name of Antshar. From 
the tree I found in the Province of Passooroo- 



14 Aïï ESSAY ON THE OOPAS> Oït 

wang I collected some jufce, which was nearljr 
equal in its operation to tbat of Blambagan* 
One of the experiments to be related below 
was made with the Oopas prepared by mjself^ 
after mv return to the chief villag-e. I had 
some difficultj in inducing the Inhabitants to 
^ssist me in collecting the juice^, asthey feared 
a cutaneous eruption and inflammation^ resenib- 
ling, according to the account they gave of it^ 
that producedby the Ingas of this ïsland, the 
R]iU8 vernix of Japan, and ihe Rhus radicans of 
North America: but they were only affected 
by a slight heat and itching of the eyes. In 
clearing the new grounds in the environs of 
Banjoowangie for cültivation, it is with much 
difiiciilty the inhabitants can be made to ap- 
proach the tree, as they dread the cutaneous 
eruption which it is known to produce when 
newly cot down. But except when the tree is 
largely wounded^ o'r when it is felled, by which 
a iarge portion of the juice is disengaged, the 
eflluvia of which mixing with the atmosphere, 
affect the persons exposed to it, with the synip- 
toms just mentioned, the tree may be approach- 
ed and ascended like the other comraon trees in 
the forests» 



J»01SÖN TREEOF ^AV^. !§ 

The Antshar, like the trees in its neighbouiv 
liood^ is on all sides surrounded by shi ubs an(J 
plants; in no instance have ï observed iht 
ground naked or barren in its inimediate circunjir 
.ference. 

The larg-est tree I met witli in ^latnbangati 
Was 80 closely environed by the comnion trees 
and shrubs of the forest in which it grew^ that 
it was with difficulty I could apprbach it. — Se* 
veral vines and climbing shrubs^, in conjplete 
health and vigour^ adhered to it and ascended 
to nearly half its height. And at the time JL 
visited the tree and collecteii the juice^ I was 
forcibly struck with the egregious misrepreseur 
tation of Foersch.— Several young trees spon- 
taneously sprung from seeds that had fallen fronj 
the parent^ reminded me of a line in Darwin*s 
Botanie Garden, '' Chained at his root two scioa 
Demons dweil''— While in re-calling his beau- 
tiful description of the Oopas, my vicinity to 
the tree gave rae reason to rejoice that it is 
founded on fiction. — The wood of the Antsha^ 
is vrhite. Il ght and of a spongrj appearance^ 

Description of the Tshittix. 

The fructification of the Tshittik is stilj 
uüknown ; after all possible lesearcii ia the 



16 AN ESSAY ON THE OOPAS, DE 

district wliere it grows, I have not been able to 
ünd it in a flowering state. — ït is a large wind- 
ing shrub, 

The root extends creeping to a considerable 
distancC;, parallel to the surface of the earth, 
sendiog off small fibres at different curves, whilc 
the main root strikes perpeiidicularlj into the 
grouLid. 

Ia large individuals ii bas a diameter of two 
or three inches ; it is covered with a reddish 
brown bark, coiitaining a juice of the same 
colour, of a peculiar pungent^ and somewhat 
nauseous odour. 

From this bark the poison is prepared. 

The stem^ which in general is shrabbj, some* 
times acquires the size of a small tree ; it is 
verj irregular in its ascent and distribution : 
liaving made several large bends near the sur- 
face of the earth it divides (at long intervals) 
into numerous branches, which attach thertiselves 
to the neighbouring objects and pursue a >vind- 
ing course, at no great distancefrom theground 
and nearly parallel to it. — In sonie instances the 
stem rises and ascends to the top of large trees ; 
its form is completely cylindrical, and it is cover- 
ed with a grey spotted bark. 



POISON TREE OF JAVA.' 17 

The lesser branches arise from the stem in 
pairs (opposite) and are very long, slender, 
cylindrical, divergent, orspreading, and covered 
with a sraooth grey shining bark ; on these the 
leaves are placed opposite, in single pairs or on 
a common footstalk, pinnate in two or three 
pairs ; they are egged, spear-shaped, entire^ ter- 
minating in a long narrow point^ corapletely 
Sïïiooth and shining on the upper surface^ with 
a few parallel veins beneath. — The petioles are 
short and soraewhat curved. — Towards their 
extremity the shoots produce Cirrhi or Tea- 
drils, which appear without any regular dis- 
tribution opposite to the leaflets ; and some 
branches are entirely without them : they are 
about an inch long, slender, compressed and 
spirally turned back (recurvati) at the end near 
their base a small stipula is found, 

The Tshettik grows only in close, shady^ al- 
most inaccessible forests, in a deep, black, fer- 
tile, vegetable mould. It is very rarely met 
with, even in the wildernesses of Blambanofan. 

Preparation Xst^ of the Antsliar. — This pro 
cess was performcd for me by an old Javanese, 
who was celcbrated for bis superior ski 11 in pre- 
paring the poison. About eight ounces of the 
juice of the Anüh'ir^ which had been collacted 



18 AN ESSAY' on tHÉ ÖOrAS, OR 

the preceding evening in the usual manner, and 
preserved in the joint of a bamboo^ wa^ 
carefully strained into a bowl. The sap of the 
following substances, whicb had been finely 
grated and bruised, waa carefully expressed and 
|)oured into iij, viz. Arum^ Nampoo. ( Javanese) 
Kaemferia. Galanga, Kontshur, Amomuni: 
Bengley, (a variety of Zenimbed ) common 
onion and garlic, of each about half a dram ; 
the savne qtiantitjof frnelj powdered black pep- 
per was then added, and the mixture stirrod. 

The preparer now (ook an entire fruit of the, 
Capsicmn firuticosujïi or Guinea Pepper^ and 
liaving opened it, he carefally separated a sin- 
gle secd^ and placed it on the flüid ia the raid^ 
die of the bowL 

Theseed imirediateljbeganto reel round rap-* 
idly^ now forming a regular circle. then darting 
towards the margin of the cnp^ with a perceptible 
commotion on the surface of the liquor^ which 
continued about one minute. Being complete- 
]y at rest, the same quantity of peppcr was a- 
gain added, and another seed of the Capsicnm 
laid on as before : a simiiar commotion took 
|)laGe in the fluidj but in a less degrce^ and ihe 
fiQed was carried round with dimiuished rapidi- 



FOï^ON TRi5lÜ OT -tATA. Iv 

tv. Tlic addilion of tlie same quantity of pop- 
per was rqieated a third time, whcn a secd of 
the Capsiciim being carefully placed in the cen- 
treof the fiaid, remained quiet, forraing a regulat 
circle about itself, in the flnid, resembling the 
ibalo of the moon. This is congidered as a sign 
that the preparation of the poi?an is complete. 

The dried milk of the Antshar having been 
preserved close a con<^iderable time, can still he 
prep^red and rendered active. A qüantify 
\vhich I had colleeted about Uro months before, 
tras treated in the following manner bv the same 
person who prepared the fresh juice. Beirg 
infused in as much hot- water as was barelj suf- 
ficiënt well to dissol ve it, it was carefully stir- 
red till ail the particles soluble in water were 
taken up ; a coagulum of Resin remained undis- 
solved ; this was taken out and thrown away. 
The liquor was now treated with the spices 
abovementioned, the pepper and the seed of the 
Capsicum, in the same manner as the fresh 
juice. The same whirling motion occurred as 
above described on the seëd being placed in the 
center. lts activitj will appear fiom one of 
the cxperimcnls to be related. 

2(1, Of the Tshctiik.— The bark of the root is 
carefully separaled^ and clcared of all the ad- 



4u AN Essay on the oopas, or 

Iserent earth; a proportionate quantity of water 
is poured on^ and it is bolled about an bour^ 
\Then the fluid is carefullj filtered tbroiigb a 
v/bite clotb ; — it is tben exposed to tJb.e fireagaiii 
?a?d boiled do\yn to nearlj ih^ consistence of an 
extract ; in this state it lïiuch resembles a tbick 
svrop. The followihg Spices having been pre- 
pared as above described, are added in the same 
proportion as to the Antsbar, viz. Kaempferia 
Galanga^ ( Kontshiir, ) Soontij, %c, Dshey, for 
common Onion, GarliQj and Mcick Feppe7\ 

The expressed jnice of these is poured into 
tlievessel^ wbich is once more exposed to the fire 
a few minutes^ when the preparation is complete. 
The Oopas of botb kinds must be preserved ia 
verj close vessels. 

EXPERIMENTS. 
1, With the Antshar, 

EXPERIMENT I. 

A dos: of middlina: size was woundcd in the 
muscles of the tbigh with an arrow that bad 
been immcrsed into the newly prepared Oopas^ 
and had been exposed to the air one night. 

In 3 minutes be seemed uneasv, lie tremblcd 
and had occasioual twitcbiugs, hit hair stood 



t»OtSON TREE OF ^TAVA. 21 

«reet, he discharged the contents of bis bowels, 
An attempt was made to oblige him to walk 
tut he could with difficulty support himself. 

In 8 minutes hé began to tremble violentlj,' 
the tvvitching continued and his breathing was 
hasty. 

In 12 minutes he extended his tongue and 
licked his jaws, he soon made an attempt to 
vomit. 

In 13 minutes he had violent contractions of 
the abdominal and pcctoral muscles^ foliowed by 
\omiting of a yellowish fluid. 

Jn 15 minutes the vomiting recurred. 

In 16 minutes, almost unable to support him- 
self, with violent contraction of the abdominal 
muscles. 

In 17 minutes he threw himself on the ground,' 

his respiration was iaborious, aiidhe vomited a 
frothy matter. 

In 19 minutes violent retching, with interrupt- 
ed discharge of a frothy substance from his 
stomach. 

In 21 minutes he had spasms of the pectoral 
and abdominal muscles, his breathing was very 
laborious, and the frothy vomiting continued. 



AN JEjSSAr ON THE ÖÖ1*AS^ 0|?. 

^ In 24 minutes in apparent agony^ turning aa| 
twisting himself, rising up and Ijing down^ 
throwing up froth. 

ïü 25 minutes he feil down suddenlv, scream^ 
ed, extcnded hi§ extremities convulsed, dis*- 
cbarged his excrement^ the froth falling froni 
his mouth. On the 2Sth minute he died. 

Dissection. — The abdoinen being öpened 
about 5 minutes aft er death^ a small quanti tj of 
a serous fluid was found in the cavitv; the 
liver^ intestines and other viscera were natural. 
— Ia the stomach a jellowish frothy mucilage 
was found adhering to the internal coat^ whic^ij 
was contracted into wrinkles. 

In the thorax the lungs were of an elegant 
ilorid colour^ and gorged with blood, the pul*, 
monarj vessels exhibiting through their coats a 
ilorid sanguinary fluid : on puncturing the as- 
cending aöita the blood gushed out of a flori^ 
colour^ 

In the ven^ cavae the bloöd was of the usual 
dark hue,, and on puncture flowed outforcibly. 
The muscles of the extremities were remarkably 
pale: on tracing the wound^ it was found in^ 
flamed, and ia two places along its course a 
small quantity of blood was found efiused be* 
tween the muscle and tendoa. 



!POÏSOM tïlEE OF JAVAv ^i 

EXPERIMENT IL 

A Doo; about four months old \vas pricked in 
the muscles of the thigh with the Oopas that 
had been prepared from the juice I coUected in 
Poegar — the Poison had remaincd on the arrow 
p,bout 4S hours. 

Ia 3 minntcs he began to tremble and the 
wounded liinb shook more considerably — he 
soon began to droop, h\mg hls hoad, and ex- 
tcndinghis tongue, iicked hls jaws. 



In 4 minutes he began io rctch ) on the 8th 
minute he vomlted, with violent and painful 
contraction of the peciorai and abdominal mus^ 
cleSj which agitated his whole frame. 

In 9 niinntes he vomitcd again with convul- 
slve violeiice — the secretion of saliva was much 
incrnased, he stretched out his fore-legs as if he 
could v^ith difficulfy support himself, his head 
hangiiig to the ground — his breathing was slow 
and laborious, 

In 1 1 minntes he thrcw up frothy matter 
with violent contraction of the abdominal and 
pcctoral muscles, and throwing himself on ihe 
groimd, cried out violently. 



2é AN fesêAY ON THÉ OOPAS^, OR 

In 12 minutes the vomiting returned, he cried 
ïïiore violent] V, was seized with convulsions. ex- 
tended bis extremities^ and on the ISth minute 
he died. 

Oa Dissection a smal! qiiantitj of serurn v/sii 
foand in the abdomen. The intestines were na- 
turalj the Liver was muclidistended wiüi bloed 
as also the vesseis of the kidnejs» 

The stomach still contained some aliment. 

In the Thorax the lungs were of a beautiTül 
crimson colour and the vesseis strongly distend- 
ed; on pancturing the aorta the blood bounded 

out forcibly of an elegant fiorid colour ; eollect- 
ed in a cup it soon coagulated ; from the venoe 
cav^ the blood also sprung out forcibly of a 
dark livid colour. 

The vesseis on the surface of the brain were 
more than naturaliy injected with blood — as 
v/ere the longitudinal and frontal sinuses. The 
%vound was as in the last instance. 

EXPERIMENT III. 

An aninial called Gendoo by the Javanese 
(the Lemnr volans of Linn^us) was prickcd 
in the cavity of the ear with a mixture of the 
simple unprepared fresh juice of Antshar, v/ith 
a little extract of Tobacco, It feit the effccta 



3P0IS0N TREE OF JAVA.' 25 

very soon, and during the first minutes it was 
Tery rcstless^ on the 5th miaute it became droop- 
ing. 

In 10 minutes it was convulsedj and soon be- 
came motionless and apparently insensible. 

On the 20lb minute it died. 

It must bc rcmarked tbat this animal is im* 
commonlj tenacious of life. 

In attempting to kill it for the purpose of 
preparing and stuffing, it bas more than once re- 
sisted a violent strangulation full 15 miautes, 

EXPERIMENT IV. 

A young Lutra ( Welinsang of fbe JaViinese) 
was punctured near the Anus in the muscles of 
the abdomen, with the simple fresh juice of the 
Antshar, mixed with a little extract of Stramo- 
niura ; vcry soon after the puncture the animal 
became restless, and holding it in my band^ ï 
could perccive ccnvulsive twitchings of the 
pauscles* 

In 15 minutes it began to retcb, had an in* 
creased flow of saliva and extended the ton^rue ; 
the abdominal muscles acted violently, and at 
intervals were strongly contracted about the 
pelvis. 



§6 AN ESSAY ON THE O0?'aS, OR 

In 20 minutes ft was convulsed> very rcstless 
during the intervals and made repeatcd efforts 
to vomit without tbrowing up any tbing : tbe 
convulsions increased in frequency and violence 
until tbe 25th miiiute, when the animal died, 

EXPERIMENT V. 

A small Dog was wounded in the usual man« 
ner in tbe muscles of the tbigh with the simples 
iinprepared milk of the Antshar. 

From tbe moment of the puucture be coii- 
tinued barking and screaraing inccssaiitly S 
minutes; be now extended bis tongue, licked 
Iifs jaws;, v/as seized with twitchings of tbe ex- 
tremities and with contractions of the abdo- 
niinal niuscleSj and discharged tbe contents of 
his bowels. 

Ou tbe lOtb minute be sprung up sudJenIf 
and b;u'ked violcntly, but soon became cxbaust-i 
ed and laid down quietly on the ground. 

On tbe I2th minute befell prostrate, 'was con* 
vulsed, after wbich having remained apparcntly 
motionless one minute^ tbe convulsions recurrcd 
with greater force ; on the 14tb minute be died. 

Oii disscction all tbe vessels in the Thora.t 
M'crc found cxcessivcly distendcd with blood. 



1>ÓÏS0N- TREE OF JAVA. ^7 

in the abdomeii the stoaiach was alniost cmp- 
tv, bilt distanded with air and its intenial coat 
covered with froih. The vessels of the \i\ex 
"were «rorsred with blood. 

EXPERIMENT VI. 

A bu'd of the genus Ardea, somewhat smallci* 
than a fowl, was w^ounded in the uiuscles of tlie 
abdomen with a dart covered with the iniprepar- 
cd milk of the Antshar. 

On the 6th miniite after the puncture it died 
without exhibiting much of the effccts of the 
Püison, having been held in the hand to prevenf 
its escape. 

EXPERIMENT VIT. 

A bird of the same genus (asemployed in the 
last experiment) was wounded in the muscles 
of the inferior part of the wing, wiih the un- 
prepared milk of the Antshar, collected from a 
different tree in the province of BLimbangan. 

In 15 minutes he threw up a yellow matter 
from his stomach and trembled. 

In 20 minutes he died, having previously 
been convulsed. 

EXPERIMENT VIII. 

A Mouse was punctured in the muscles of the 
fore-leg, near the articulation, with theprepared 
poisoü, 



2S AN ESSAY ON THE OOPAS^ OR' 

He immediatelj sbevved sjmptoms of uoeasi- 
HesSj running round rapidij and soon began to 
fereathe hastilj. 

ïn 5 minutes liis breathing was laborioiis and 
difficuit^ and on the 6tli naniite not being able 
to support hiniself, he lay down on bis side. 
Ie 8 rainutes be was convulsed and bis breatb- 
ing was slow and interrupted ; the convulsions 
continued until tbe lOtb minute, wbenhe died. 

EXPERIMENT IX. 

Tbis experiment was made witb tbe sap of 
tbe Antsbar wbicb ï collected near the viila2:e 
of Porrong in Passooroowang, and prepared ac-^ 
cordiog to the process ï had seen at Banjoo- 
waogee^ witb the spices above raentioned. As 
its object is to sbew the relative action of tbe 
poison coiiected in different paris of tbe Island, 
(and as it generalij agrees witb tbe Ist and 2d 
cxperirnents^ ) I sball onlj mention its cbief 
gtages, 

In one minute after tbe puncturC;, tbe aninial 
beo-an to sbiver and bis skin was contracted. 



"-'O' 



In 5 minutes be extended bis tonguc and 
beii'an to retcb. 

In 8 minutes be trcmbled violcntly. 
On tbe 2 Ist minute he vomited. 



POISON TREE OF JAVA. 29 

In f21 minutes, after repeated vomiting, his 
exti^'mities were convulsed. 

Oa tli3 29tli minute he died. 

The appearances on Dissection v/ere exactlj 

ibe same as those observed in the Ist and 2d 
Experiinents. 

EXPERIMENT X. 

The simple unprepared juice of the Antshar 
from the same tree ( vide Experiment IX) ap- 
plied on a small dog,^inthe usual manner, caused 
death on the 19 minute, with the Sjmptoras 
that occurred in the other Experiments. 

EXPERIMENT XI. 

A small Monkey was wounded in tlie muscles 
of the thlghj wlth a dart covered with the pre- 
pared Oopas from Banjoowangee. 

He was instantly affected by the poison^ and 
in less than one minute lay prostrate on his side : 
on attempting to rise he shewed symptoms of 
drowsiness, which continued 5 minutes^ wlien he 
began to retch. 

On the 6th minute he vomited and discharged 
the contents of his rectum. He was soon seized 
with convulsions, and on the 7th minute he died. 
The same appearances were remarked oa Dis- 
section as in the fof mcr Experiments. 



30 AN ESSAY ON THÈ OOPAS^ On 

EXPERIMENT XII. 

A Cat was wounded wiih the sams polson. 

ïn one rninute tbe breathing became quick. 

In 7 mlnutes the saliva flowed in drops from 
the tongue. 

lü 9 minutes sbe vomited a \rhite frothj mat- 

Iqï, aud appeared in agony. 

On the 1 Ith rninute she threw up an excrc- 
incntal matter. 

In rt minutfis she discharged the contents 
of the bladder and rectum involuntarily. 

ïn 15 mlnutes she died convulsed. 

EXPERmENT XIIÏ. 

The following experiment was made ön the 
animal of the Ox tribe in comnlon domestic use 
on Java, callcd Korbow by the Javanese^ and 
Buffalo by the Europeans : the subject was 
füll-grown, and in perfect vigour and health. 
liaving been well secured, he was wonnded by 
a dart somewhat larger than those used in the 
other experiments, covered with the Oopas from 
Blambangan (applied about 24 honrs before) 
in the internal muscles of the thigh, in aa 
oblique manner, tlie skin having been prcvious- 
ly divided to admit the wcapon freely. 



POISON TREE OF JAVA. 31 

The animal being in some degroe loosened^ 
about one minute after the puncture, the dart 
was extricated : I suppose that about 6 grains 
of the poisou adhered to the woiiiid. 

On the lOth minute the respiration was some- 
what increased and heavy. 

In 20 minutes he had a copious discharge 
from his intestines^ a watery fluid flowed from 
his nostrilsj and he showed some sjmptoms of 
drowsiness. 

In 30 minutes he had an increased flow of 
saliva which dropped from his mouthj he ex- 
tended his tongue and lickcd his jaws; his res- 
piration bccame more laborious ; his pectoral 
muscles acted with violence, and the abdo- 
niinal muscles were stronglj contracted above 
the pel vis. His raotions were slow and dif- 
ficult. His muscular exeitions were much di- 
minishedj and he exhibited great fatigue accom- 
panied by restlessness : all these symptoms gra-» 
dually increased until 

The 60th minute — his hair stood erect r unable 
to support himself, he lay down : he had con- 
tractions of the extremities : the abdominal and 
pectoral muscles were more violently convulsed 
and the respiration was more laborious. 



32 AN ESSAY ON THE OOPAS, OR 

The restlessness rapidly incieased ; baving 
risen with difïïcultj he quickly lay down again 
exbausted and pariting — the üow of saliva from 
liis raoüth continuing. 

In 75 iTiinutes he extended bis longue and 
made an attempt to vomlt, bis extremities trera- 
bled : be rosé and Ibrew bimseif down again 
siiddenly exteading- Iiis bead. 

On ihe 80tb minute the saliva flowed ia 
sfreams from bis moutb mixed witb froth : be 
retched violentlj', witb excessive convulsive 
action of bis pectoral muscics^ but unable to 
vomi(^ be appeared in great agonj. 

In 90 minutes be extended hls bcad witb 
strong convulsions, and trembled; the bair stood 

erect, be discbarged the contents of bisbowels ; 
the breatbing became more laborious, and the 
muscles of the abdoraen and brcast acted with 
excessive violence. 

The agony increasing, be rosé a few seconds^ 
but unable to support bimseif, feil down again. 

The 1 lOtb minute baving made an attempt to 
rise^ be feil down bead foremost, with convul- 
sions of the extremities and bead — be groaned 
violentlj, the respiration was much impedcd and 
rccurred at intervals of 15 seconds. 



POISON TREE OF JAVA. 33 

On the ]20th minute, he lay in great agony, 
groaneil, bellowed, and exfendedhis tongue and 
extreinities violently couvulsed. 

In 12j miuutesj he was entirely exhausted ; 
the breathing returned ai'ter long intervals. 

On the ISOth minute^ he died ronvulsed. 

Fifteen minutes after the motions of life had 
ceased, I opened the cavities of the abdomen 
and breast. The stonnach was immensely dis- 
tended with air ; the vessels of all the visccra of 
the abdomen were as injected and distended 
with blood. In the thorax the lungs v/ere of a 
\ivid, florid, crimson colour, and the great ves- 
sels (the aörta^ venae-cavae, and the arteries and 
veins of the liings) were gorged with blood. 

A smali pancture being made into the aorta, 
the blood bonnded out in a stream of a beauti- 
f ui crimson colour ; froni the venn; cava!; it fiow- 
ed of a dark livid colour. In the hirge rnuscles 
of the pcetus which had been divided in the dis- 
section, a trembling vibratory motion was ob- 
served fnll 20 minutes after the motions of life 
hal ceased. 

Experiment XIV. 
A Fowl of middiing size was punctured in the 
rnuscles of the thigh wilh a poisoned dart fiom 



Sil AN ESSAY ON THE OOPAS, OR 

Eanjoowaijgee. During the iirst hour it was ViU 
tle afFücted bj the wound. In about two hours 
it appeared drowsj, and had slight shiverings. 
It contioued drooping and quiet till 24 hours 
after the puncture, when it died. 

Experiment XV. 
Havingj by the assistance of the Commandant 
of Banjoowangie^ obtained from the island of 
Bali* an arrow, supposed to be armed with the 
Oopas from Borneo, I wounded a Dog in the 
muscles of the thigh. On the iOth minute he 
became restless, attempted to extricate himself 
and barked. 

In 14 minutes, he extended his tongue, had 
an increased öow of saliva^, shewed a disposi- 
tion to vomit. 

In 15 minutes, he was very mueh agitated, 
jumping, barking, and making violent elTorts to 
escape, — the attempts to vomit became niore re* 
pealeda 

Ia 25 minutes he appeared exhausted and ex- 
tended his linibs. 

In 30 minutes the muscles of the abdomca 
were contracted. 

In 32 minutes he vomited. 



rOISON TREE OF JAVA, 35 

In 37 minutes he vomited an excremental 
matter. 

In 4Ö minutes Iie breathed heavilj and labori- 
ouslj, the miiscles acted violentlj, 

In 45 minutes Ijing exbausted and breathing 
hastily. 

lu 50 minutes he sfarted suddenljr and barkcd. 

In 55 minutes be cried out violently^ and 
havins: dischar^ed hls excrement — after a few 
interrupted respiratiotis, he died. On dissec- 
tion the same appeararices were observed as af- 
ter the abave related experlments. 

EXPERTMENT XVI. 

I obtained a small quantity of the Oopas of 
the ïsland of Borneo, which having moistened, 
and rendered somewhat fluid with cold water, 
I applicd to a dart, and wounded a Dog in the 
usual manner. 

The first three minutes^ he appeared little af- 
fected bv the wound. 

On the 3th minute he shesved sjmptoms of 
drowsiness^ which gradually increased. 

In 6 minutes he staggered and reeled round. 



SS AN ESSAY ON THE OOPAS, OR 

In JO miïuites the drowsiness retiirned after 
V/bich he reeleii rourid agaio. He now bad an 
iocreased flow of saüva and his breatbing be- 
came quicker. 

In 12 minutes be reeled round again^ with 
more violence and trembled. 

On the 14th nriinute be feil down with violent 
tremors and extended bis extremities convuked : 
after a short calni, the symptoms recurred with 
greater violence on the 15tb minute, wbcn 
afier vioient tremors^ convulsions and screaming 
be died. 

A creeping iindulatory motlon was observed 
iiï the skin aftei' deatb over the siirface of the 
whole body m tbis and several other instances, 

EXPERIMENT XVII. 

The following experiment was made at Soora- 
karta (in tbe course of the monib of March 
1812) with the poison of tiie Antshar wbich I 
collcctcd at Banjoowan£:ee in Juij 1806. 

A èog of middling size was wonnded in tho 
usiial manner in the niusclcs of ihe tbiixb wi(h 
a dart that had been dipt into the Poison aboiit 
24 liüurs bcfore, and durino; tbe interval bad 
been exposed to the open air of a cbanibor. 
Duriog tbe first twenf v minutes after tbe punc- 



rOÏSON TREE OF JAVA. 37 

tiire he remaiiied quiet and shewed few symp- 
toms of uneasiness, cxcept a kind of heaviness 
andfafisue: on the 20ih minule bis abdominal 
muscles were soincwhat contracted and he 
breathed heavier. 

In 25 rninutes he had an increased flow of 
saliva and licked his jawg. 

In 27 rainüles he started, screamed vioIcntlv% 
feil down convulsed^ anddischarged the contents 
of his rectiiim. 

On the 28th minute the convnlslons returned 
violentij and continued wifhout interruption tili 
. The 30th minute, when he died. 

The dissection agrees with those previouslj 
made. The stomach was distended : it con- 
tained tlie food previouslj taken, the poisoii 
having acted with uncommon violcnce, it was 
iiot ejecte^ as usual. In the Thorax the large 
vcssels were very much disfended with blood 
exhibiting the appearances above described. 

The vessels of the lungs were distended and 
the lungs were florid. 

On removins: the cranium the brain and dura 
mater were found nearly natural, the former 
pale and perhaps more watery than usuaL 



38 AN ESSAY ON THE OOPAS^, OR 

Experiments witli the Tshettik. 

EXPERIMENT XVI.II. 

A Dog of iTïiddiing' size was wounded in the 
jnuscles of the thigh with a dart covered with 
VüQ fresh prepared Poison of Tshettik. 

Il) 2 ininuteg he sbewed symptoms of uneasi- 
ness ; he appeared faint and lay down. 

Ia S|- mi?iütes he ivas seized with con* 
vulsive twitchings of the ex^remities^ was verjr 
restless and his breathing became quick : these 
sjijtiptomg gradtiailj increasing to the 6th minute 
>?v'hi[e he co^tinued as exhausted in a Ijing 
posture. 

He now raised himself, extended his head as 
if attempting to leap, hut feil down, was seized 
with violoiit convulsions, attended by quick and 
iatcrrupted breathing, to the 9th minute^ when 

he died» 

EXPERIMENT XÏX. 

A small Dog' was woonded in the usual man- 
Ber iïï the moscles of the thigh with the poison 
of Tshettik, 

He immediately placed himself in a drooping 
posture, his forelegs bent as in kneelingj and 
thtis he continued to the 5th minute ; he was 

Eiow seized v/ith treinbling which continued 



ï»OISON TREE OF .JAV^. 89 

dboiit half a miiiute, wheii he suddealy started^ 
exterided his head and neck, stretched out his 
exiremities, and falüug oa his side^ was violently 
convulsed. 

His legs continued stiff, extended and tremb-, 
ling. These syoiptoms coatinued with great 
f ore e, 

Uatil the 8th minute, when they gradually di- 
minished ; his respiration became interrupted | 
he had occasional tvvitchings to the lUh nsiu-^ 
Ute, when he died quietly. 

On dissection the contents of the abdomea 
were found perfectly natural-— the stomach was 
distended with food newly taken in. In the 
Thorax the heart and lungs appeared natural— * 
the aorta was almost emptj^ and on beingpunc- 
tured a small quantity of blood ran out of a 
dark colour : the ascendingand descending venas 
cavae were distended with dark blood, which 
being let out soon coagulated in the cavity of 
the Thorax^, The brain was njost affected ; the 
vessels were distended and inflamed, the sinuses 
were filled with dark coloured blood. 

EXPERIMENT XX. 

A fowl nearly full g'rown was piercedthrough 
the muscles of the thigh with an arrow armei 
with T^hettik. 



40 AN ESSAY ON THE OOPAS, OR 

After the first impression was over, it seemetS 
irssensible to the wound about one minute, wal Ic- 
ing round and picking cp grains as usual ; near 
the secood minute it became giddy, and unable 
to stand, placed itself into a half sitting posture. 

On the 3d minute it began to breatbe hastily. 

In 5 minutes it trerabled and discharged the 
contents of its bowels. It now made an attempt 
to rise, and extended its head and neek, but being 
unable to support itself, reeled round, feit down, 
had violent convulsions with quick interrupted 
breathing, which continued to the 9th miiiute 
when it died. 

EXPERIMENT XXI. 

A Fowl was wounded with a poisoned dart ia 
the back near the left wing, the puncture ex- 
tending towards the cavity of the Thorax. 

In less than one minute it shewed some uq» 
easiness and could with difSculty support itself. 

In one minute and a half it had a fluid dis» 
charge from the bowels, after which it sudden- 
ly started, extended its head and legs, and trem- 
bied violently, fluttering with the wings. 

On the third minute it made a sudden effort 
la run, and extended its neck^ but feil dowa 



POISON TREE OF JAVA. 41 

head foremost, and was violently convulsed^ 
fliutering with the wings ; the respiration was 
extreïiiely laborious and soon becanie interrupt- 
ed, the convulsions coiitiiiued to the fourth miu- 
ute, when it died. 

EXPERIMENT XXïI. 

A Fowl was wounded in the usual manner 
with an arrow covered with the Oopas of 
Tshettik, which had not been mixed with the 
spices employed in the preparation. 

On the 40th second it feit the operation 
picking its breast violently, as if it perceived an 
itehing. 

In one minute it reeled round. 

In one minute and a half it extended its 
neck, feil down forwardS) fluttered and was 
seized with convulsions which continued to the 
3d minute, when it died. 

EXPERIMENT XXIII. 

The following experiment was made in Au- 
gust 1808> two years after the preparatioo of 
the poison. 

A Fowl was wounded in the usual manner 
with a poisoned dart. It died with the above 
relatcd sjmptonzs two minutes after the puncture 



49 AN ESSAY ON THE OOPAS, OR 

EXPERIMENT XXIV. 

ï iafüsed a smali portion of the bark of the 
Tsliettik in Alcohol : baving macerated it a 
few days I exposed it to the open air far co- 
operation, aod obtained a small quantitj of aö 
elegant brown shining resin. 

A dart was covered with a few grains of thi* 
and a fowl wounded in the usual manner. 

The first three nilnutes after the punctare it 
reiïiained quiet and appeared drooping. 

On the 4th minute it reeled backward, tötter- 
ed, and its limbs were relaxed. 

On the 6th minute it appeared to be sleepy, 
but its drowsiness was frequently interrupted by 
twitchings a^^d startings. 

In 8 minutes it tottered, but soon became 
drowsy again. 

In *I2 minutes it feil down convulscd and 
trembling, but sooii became quiet^ and its 
breathing was quick. 

On the 17th minute it had occasional twitch- 
insrs in the extremities and was unable to stand 
erect. 

On the 20th minute the drowsiness had con- 
siderably diminished ; it rosé, and supported ii" 
seU, but tottered in attempting io walk. 



POISON TREE CF JAVA, 43 

Froin tlifi oOth minuto it begaii to revive, all 
the effects gradiüillj went oQ\ and 

On tlie 60th minute it was apparently well. 

EXPERIMENT XXV. 

The folio wing experiment was made at Soora- 
karfa in the nionth of March of the pregent year 
ISl''^, nearly six year? after the collection of the 
Oopas in Blambangan. 

A dog of middling size was woundcd in the 
muscles of the thi^h, with a dart which havino: 
been dipt into the Oopas was exposed half an 
hour to the open air^, to give the poison time to 
become drj. 

During the first two minufes bc stood quiet, 
and bis appearance onlj exhibited the pain pro- 
duced by the wound. 

On the 3d minute he was drowsj. 

In 5 minutes he began to tremble violently 
and to reel. 

On the 7th minute he feil down head foremost 
and was convulsed, bis cxtremities being stiffly 
extended : nnable to raise himself again, the 
convulsions continned with excessive violence 
till the 9th minute, when he dicd. 



44 AN ESSAY ON THE O OPIS, OK 

On diss:ection his stomach was found natiiral 
and contiiined the food lately taken in: alf 
the Yïscera of the abdomen wei e also natural. 
In the Thotax the vense cavse were faand com- 
pletelj filled and the aorta partiallj filled with 
blood, the Jungs still retained a fiorid coloür. 
Oo removing the eraaium and exposing thebrain 
the vvhole surface of the dura mater was fomid 
in dame d, and the vess^^ls were injfxted with 
blood ; that part covering the riglit lobe in par- 
tic ui ar was in a state of the bisrhest inSamma- 
tion ; it exhibited externallj a livid blaish 
colonr r on the internat surface (of tbe dura 
mater) tbc fluid had been fbrced out of tke ves- 
sels by the violencc of the action^ and it was 
covered bj a bloody Ijmph, The integuments 
of the cerebellum were also» stronglj affected. 
In the vessels of the surface of the brain itself 
soine marks of inflamniation were also perceived. 
On tracing the wound no evident marks of i^n- 
ilammation appeared^ and the remains of the 
adhering' Poison were evident along Lts course» 

EXPERIMENT XXVI 

(To shew the cffects of the Poison taken 
internallij.) 
To a nearly fuU growa dog, about half tbs 



POISON TREE OF JAVA. 45 

quantity of Poison generally adliering to a durt 
was gi ven in a little boiled rice. 

During the first ten miniites he remained 
qiiiet and appeared a little drowsy : on the 14th 
minute he could with difSculty support himself 
erect, and indicaied symptoms of pain : he shew- 
ed some disposition to vomit^ and extended his 
jaws. 

In 28 minutes he extended his hind legs spas- 
modic. 

In SI minutes he had violent spasms over his 
Tvhole frame. 

In 37 minutes he stood breathing hastily, his 
abdomen appeared uneasy. 

In 39 minutes he had spasmodic extensions of 
his extremities; which lasted half a minute^ 
when he became quiet; but being faint, sup- 
portod himself against a wall. 

In 46 minutes he started up convulsed. 

In 48 minutes he appeared oppressed in the 
head and drowsy. 

In 54 minutes he started up suddenly. 

In 60 minutes he appeared oppressed and 
drowsy. 



4G AN ESSAY ON THE OOPAS^ Oïl 

In 61 minutes he feil backwards ia violent 
convülsioris^ hls cxtremities strongly contractcc! 
bj spasmSj after which he became calm. 

On the 63d minute being rousod and attempt- 
ing to walk, he feli backsvards with violent 
spasms aiid convulsions. 

In 65 minuteSj having raised himself with 
difficaltj, he stood with his exiremities lar ex- 
tended, and his niuscles in a state of spasmodic 
contraction. 

Ia 67 minutes hs feil doWn head foremost^ 
violently convalsed, his breathing became inter- 
rupted, and 

On the G9th minute he died. 

DissecHon. — On opening the abdomen several 
ounces of a clear serous flnid, mixed with streaks 
cf newly coagulated blood, v/ere found efFused 
, in the cavity : the vessels of the external coats 
of the stomach of the intestines and mesentery 
were in the highest possible degree inflamed, 
and distended beyond their natural size, having 
evidently been acted on by the most violent 
forre; the stomach being opened was found 
f^mpty, its internal coat was corrugated and 
covered with frothy mucus in which were found 
the remains of the poison, a dark yellow fluid 



POISON TREE OF JAVA. 47 

Vflih some grains of tlie rice witli which it was 
convcved. In the Thorax the lungs wcre still 
florid, the venae cava* much distended., the aorta 
nearl V empty ; beiii^ puactured the bloüd flow- 
ed out of a dark hue. 

On exposing to view the brain, the dura ma- 
ter was nearly natural, onlv the lari^er vesselg 
somewhat more distended than usual : the ves- 
sels of the brain itself indicated a slight degree 
of inflammation. 

REMARK.S 0\ THE EXPERIMENTS. 

I have selected froni a large number of ex-^ 
perimr'nts, those on\y which are particularly de- 
monstrative of the effects of the Antshar and of 
the Tshettik when introduced into the circula- 
tion. The poison was always applied by a 
pointod dart or arrow m ide of bamboo, The 
extr^mity to which the poison adhered was 
corapletely spear-shaped, ab;)ut aü inch long, 
and a line and an half broad near the middle of 
its length. 

When I contemp]afed an experiment, the dart 
was dipt into the fluid poison which I preserve 
in closed vessels. It is necessary to give it some 
time to become dry and fixed upoo the 
dart. I fouud byjrepeated trials the poisoa 



éB AN El^SAY ON TXtE OOPAS, OU 

most active, after ha ving adhered twenty-foiïr 
Lcurs to the weapon ; if applied in a fiuid state, 
ii does not enter the wound in sufücient quan- 
tity to produee its effects, but in the attempt io 
thriist it through the muscles^ it separates itself 
from the dart, and adheres externallj to the in* 
tegunfients. 

The operation of the two different poisons oa 
the aniïiial sjstem is essentially different, 

The first 17 experiments were made with the 
Antshar; the rapidity of its effect depends in a 
great degree on the size of the vessels woundedj, 
and on the quant ity of poisou carried into the 
circulation. 

In the first experiment it induced death in 
26 minutes, — in the second, which was made 
with the sap collected in Poogar, in 13 mi- 
nutes. The poison from different parts of the 
Island has been found nearly eqiial in activity. 

In the 9th experiment, (with the poison fro'm 
Passooroowang, ) death foliowed in 29minutes. 

The comvnon train of symptoms is, a trem» 
bling and shivering of the extremities, restlcss- 
ness, erection of the hair, discharges from the 
bowels, drooping and faintness, slight spasms^ 
and convulsions, hasty breathing, an increased 



\ 



rOISON TREE OF JAVA. 49 

ilow of saliva, spusmodic contractions of the 
pectoral and abdorninal muscles, rctching, vo- 
miting, excremental vomiting, frothy-vomit- 
ing, great agony, labovioiis breathing, vioknt 
and repeated convulsions, death, 

The effecfsare nearly the sarne on quadrupeds, 
in whatever part of the body the wound is made. 
ït sometimes acts wilh so much force, that not 
all the symptoms enumerated are observed ; in 
these cases, after thepremonitory syraptonis (tre- 
mors^ twitchings, faintness, and an increased 
flovv of saliva, ) the convulsions come on sud- 
dei»ly, and are quickly-followed by deathj— 
see the 17th Ejtperiment. 

The Oopas appears io affect different qiiad- 
rupeds with nearly e<jual force, proportionate 
in some deo:ree to their size and disposition, 
To Da;i,s it proved mortal in most experiments 
withiii an hoiir, — a Mouse died in 10 niinutes, 
see Exper. 8th, — a Monkey in 7 minutes, see 
£xper. llth, — A Cat in 15 rainutes, see Exper, 
12tb. 

A Bu^alo, one of the largest quadi'upeds of 
the Isiaiid, died in 2 hoiirs and ten minutes, see 
Exper. 13th. I do not think the quantity of 
poison introduced in this experiment was pro- 



•50 AN ESSAY ON THE' OOPAS, OR 

portioned to that wliicb was tbrown inio the 
svstern in the experiments on snrAler animals ; 
the dart feil from the woupd before a suiücietit 
quantitj bad been taken iato the ciiculatioa to 
produce a rapid eïïod. If an animai is piei'ced 
bj an iron spear to which the poisoa bas beea 
appliöd, it ((^eU comparatively but lilde of the 
eiFects, because the weapon is agaio retracted, 
and the poison does oot remain in contact witb 
the wouad long eoough to be taken into the cir- 
culation. Mir« Leschenaut de la Tour stabbed 
a Buffalo a number of tirnes successivelv with a 
common spear or pike of the Javanese, largelj 
covered with the poison of theTshettik^ witboot 
Verj sensiblv affoctiag- the aniinal. A dart or 
arrow prepared of bamboo is a more fit instru- 
ment to introducé the Oopas ; having once 
pierced the skin, it easily adherés to the parts it 
comes in contact with^ on account of its incoii- 
siderable wei.^ht. 

The Natives of Macasser, Borneo^ and the 
E'vstern Isbmds, when tliev emploj this poison, 
inake use of an arrow of bamboo, (to the end of 
which thej attach a shark's tooth, ) which ihey 
tbrow ffom a blow-pipe or sompit, 

The 15th and iötb Experiments ?Lve convpar^ 
ative, thej were made with the Oopas from 



POÏSON TREE OF JAVA, SI 

Bali and Borneo; by contrastin^ them witli 
the Ist, 2d, 9th, and I7th Experiments, it suiïï- 
cieiitly appears how far the Oopas of the diiïer- 
ent ïslands agrees in activity. It is probabie, 
that the Oopas froiii B )rneo^ when fresb, may 
act more forcibly thaa that of Java. 

If the simple or unprepared sap is mixed witli 
thö extract of tobdcco or srtainoiiiuiii, ( iiistead 
of the spices inentioned in the accoaut of the 
preparation) it is reudered equally, perhaps 
more active, — see the 3d and 4tii Exper. 

Even the purejuice ufjmixed and nnprepar- 
edj appears to act with a fo^xe equal to that 
which has undergooe the preparative process^ 
according' to the nKinner of the Javanese at 
Blamba2:an. See the 5th Exper. made v/ith 
the fresh juice of Banjoowangee, and tlie JOtli 
Exper. with the fresh jiiice collected at G-oor- 
roii<r, near Passooroo-tvanir. 



.^, WW..» ^ ^^^^,^..^^ ,, ^..^, 



Birds are very diiTerently a(fected bv this poi- 
so!i ; — Fowls have a peciiliar capacity to resist 
its effects. In the 44th Exper. a Fowl died 24 
hours after the wound, others have recovercd 
after being partially affected. 

The Sth and 7th Exper. shevv the efilcts of 



52 ATI msSAY ON THE OOPAS, OR 

the unprepared jüice on two bivds of the genu^ 

Ardeo. 

The 18ih and the succeeding Exper. werö 
made vvith the poison prepared from the Tshet- 
tik, lts operation is far more vioient and rapid 
than that of the Antshar, and it afFects the ani- 
ïjiai sjstem in a different manner ; while the 
Antshar operates chieflv on the stomach, aud 
alimeatarj caual, the respiration and circula- 
tiou, the Tshettik.is determined to the braia 
and nervous. sjsteni., 

A rehitive comparison of the appearances oii 

dissection, demonstrates iu a strikiog manner the 
pecüliar operation of eacb. 

The ISth, I9th, and 25th Experinrients, give 
a genera! view of the effects of the Tshettik oa 
quadrupeds. 

After the previous symptoms of faintness^ 
«Irovvsiness, and s^ight convolsions, it acts by a 
snelden impulse, which like a violetit apoplety 
prostrale.s at once the wbole nervous sjsteiïi. 

In the ISth and 19th Exper. this sndden ef- 
fect took pl-ice on the 6ih minute after the 
wound, and in the 55th Experiment on the 7th 
minute. the auimals suddeuly starled^ feil dcnya 



i^OÏSOK TTlEE OF JAVA. hS 

ll«ad-forernost and continned in convulsions iill 
death ensued. 

This poison aifects Fowls in a mucli more 
violent manner tban that of tlie Antshar, as ap- 
pears from the SOtli and 2Ist Experiment; they 
are first affected by a heat and itching of the 
breast and wings^ wbich they shew by violently 
picking these parts ; this is foliowed by a loose 
discharge from the bowels, v/hcn they are seiz- 
ed with tremors and fiüttering of the wings, 
%vhicli having continued a short time^ they fall 
down head-foremost^ and continue convulsed 
tiil death. I have related such experimenls as 
shew the gradual operation of the poison: in 
some instances (especially in young Fowls) it 
acts with far greater rapidity; death bas fre- 
quently occurred within the spacc of a minute 
after the puncture with a poisoned dart. 

It appears from the 22d Experiment^ that the 
simple iinmixed decoction of the bark of the 
root of the Tshettik is nearly as aetive as the 
poison prepared according to the process above 
related. 

The 24th Experiment shcws plainly^ that the 
tesinous portion of the biirk is by no means sa 
aetive as the particles soluble in water; a Fowl 



54 Al< '£BSÏY ON THE OOFAS, OR 

wounded bj a dart covered with the pure resinf^ 
recovcred after hemg very partially affected ; it 

bas also been remarked above, that iii the pre- 
paratioü of the dried jiiice of the Antshar, the 
resiooos parts are throvvn away. The strength 
of the poisoö reo^ains onimpaired^ if carefully 
preserved a nurnber of years, as is evirie jt from 
the experiments made at different periods of its 
age. 

Takeo into the stomicb of qaadrupeds, the 
Tshettik likewise acts as a snost violent poison^ 
but it reqoires aboüt twice the period to pro» 
duce the same effect whieh a wouad produces» 

In the 26th Exper. its operation internallj is 
detailed, and the appearances after death ars 
described in the account of the dissection. 

But the stomaehs of Fowls can resist its ope* 
ration; having mixed about doublé the quanti- 
ty generalij adheriog to a dart, with the food 
of a fowl;, it consumed it without shewing anj 
marks of indisposition. 

The poison of the Antshar does by no means 
act so violentlj on quadruped»^ as that of the 
Tshettik. I have given it to a dop ; itproduc- 
ed at first nearly the same sjmptoms as a punc- 
ture; oppression of the hcad, tvvitchiiigs^ faiut- 



t»OISON TREE OF JAVA. i>tl 

tiess, laborious respiration, violent contraction 
of the pcctoral and abdoniinal muscles, an in- 
creased flow of saliva^ vomiting, great restless- 
ncss and agony, ^c whicli continued nearly 
twobours; but after the complete evacuation 
of Ihe stomacli by vomiting, the animal gradu- 
ally recovered. 

Rumphius g'oes so far ai to assert that a small 
quant ity niay bc taken internally as a medicine, 
In speaking of qualities of the Arbor Tcxica- 
ria, he says the crude and unmixed Ipo is an 
antidote to the bite or sting of venonious lisbes 
and insects ; also^ that a person aflected by aa 
eruption of the skin or vecuations, may take a 
small pill of ihe Oopas, which will attract all 
impurities from the intestines and carry them off, 

The appearauces observed on dissection ex- 
plain in a great degree the relative operation of 
the poisons. In animals killed by the Antshar, 
the large vessels in the Thorax, the aorta and 
vena; cava^ were in every instance found in an 
excessive degree of distention : the viscera in 
the vicinity of the source of circulationj es- 
pecially the lungs, were uniformly filled in a 
preternatnral degree Nvith blood, which in this 
\iscus and in the aorta still retaiued a florid 
coloiir and was completely oxygenated; On 



56 AN ESSAY ON THE OÜPAS, OR 

puncturing these ve'jsels it bounded oüt with 
the elasticitj and spring of life. The vessels 
öf the iivefj of the stomach and intestines^ and 
of the viscera of the abdoraea in generale ^vere 
also inore than naturaliy distended, but not in 
the same degree as those of the breast. In the 
cavitj of the abdornen a small quantity of se- 
rum \\as sometimes efiused» 

The stomach was alwaj^s distended with air 
and in those instances in which the action of 
the poison was gradual, and in which vomit- 
ing super v^ened in the course of the sjmptoms^ 
its internal coat was covered Avith froth. 

The brain indlcated less of the action of the 
pohoa than the viscera of the thorax and ab- 
dornen. lil sonie instances i§ was perfectly na- 
tura^ in others marks of a small degree of in- 
flanmiation were discovered. 

An undulatory motion of the skin and of the 
divided musck^s, was verj evident in some of 
the dissected animals. 

The appearances observed ia the animals 
destrojed bj the Tshettik were verj different. 
In a nnrnber of dissections the viscera of the 
Thorax and abdoaien were found nearly in a 
Batural state^ aud the large vessels of the 



POLS ON TRliE OF JAVA. 57 

Thorax exhibited that comlition in which they 
are usuallv faund after death from otlier 
poisons. 

Rut ihi) brain and tbc du ra mater shewed 
marks of a most violent and cxcessive affection, 
In sorae instarices the inflammation anil redness 
of the diira matura was so strong, that on first 
inspection, I siipposed it to be the conseqiience 
of a blow previously roceived, iintil I was 
taup^ht by repeated examinations that this is a 
universal appearance after death from T&hettili. 

I am not at present at leisure, nor am I properly 
prepared, to investigate fullj the operation of 
the two poisons described on the animal system, 
or to ehicidate their effects bj a comparison 
v/ith olhcr poisons. The series of experirnents 
I have proposed to mjself, and which are neces- 
sary for the purpose, is by no meaos finishedj, 
nor does my situation at present afford me those 
opportunities of scicntific consultation, which 
such an iiivestigation requires; it remain* for 
a future period also, to determine, relatively^ 
the force of these poisons u ith that of the most 
venomous Scrpcnts ; the Tshettik exceeds, per- 
haps, in violence, any poisoii hitherto known. 
It shews its effocts pociiliarly and almost exclu- 
sivcly on the brain and iiervous systera. 



S8 AN ËêSAy ON tHË OOPAS, OR 

The action of tlie Antsbar is directed cliief- 
ïj to the vascüiar system. The volume of the 
l)lood is accomulated in a pieternatural degree 
in the large vesseis of thé Thorax. 

The circulation appears to be absfracted from 
the cxtremïties and thrown upon the viscera 
riear its source. The lungs in particular are 
stimulated ta excessive exertions. The ba- 
lance of circulation is destroyed* The vital 
viscera are oppressed bj an intokrable load, 
which produces the sjmptoms above described> 
"while in the extremities a proporlionate degree 
óf torpor takes place, accornpanied bj tremors^ 
shivering, and convulsions. 

I have but little to add concerning the opèra^ 
tion of the Anfshar on the hnman system, the 
only credible information on this subject is con* 
tained in the v/ork of Ilumphius, who had an 
opportunity of personallv observing the effect 
of the poisoned darts or arrow^s, as they were 
üsed bj the natives of Macassar in their attack 
on Amboina about the jear 1650. 

They were also employcd by the inhabitants 
of Celebes in thcir former wars with t!ie Dutch. 
Speaking of their operation^ he says Üie poison 
touching the warm blood, is instantly carried 
through the whole body, so that ii inay be feit 



POISON TREE OF JAV4. 59 

311 all the voins, and causos au fxcessivebnrning, 
and violent tuniini;' in the head^ which is fol- 
iowed bv fainfing" and death. 

The poison (acCordiiig to the same" author) 
possesses different degrees of vioience accordiiig 
to i(s age and state of preservation. 

The most powerful is called Oopas Radja 
and its effccts are considered as incurable ; the 
other kinds are distributed among the soldiers 
on jz:eing to war. AftfT having proved mortal 
to many of the Dutch soldiers in Amboina and 
Macassar, they iinallj discovered an almost infal- 
lible remedy in therootof the Crinum Asiaticura 
(called by Rnmphius Radix Toxicaria) which 
if tiniely applied, countcracted by its violent 
emetic effect, the force of the Oopas. 

An intelligent Javanese at Baiijoowangie in- 
formed me, that a number ofyears ago, an inha- 
bitant of that district was wounded in a clan- 
destirie manner by an sirrow tlirown from a blow 
pipe, in the fora arm near the articulation of the 
elboWe In about 15 rainutes hebecame drowsy, 
after which he was seized with voruiting, be- 
came delirious^ -aud in h'ss ihan balf an hour 
he died. 

Ff om the experiment s above relat ed on dif- 
ferent quadrupeds, we niav form an analogous 
estimate of ils prububle eü'ctts en man. 



XI 



SKETCH OF BORNEO, 

BY THE LATE 

Dr. LEYDEJf. 



T 



P- HE great Island of Borneo stretches from 
the fourih degree of South latitude to the 8th of 
N. lat. and from the 150Üi to the I58th degree 
of long. being about 700 miles in length, and 
500 in breadlh ; it lies almost in sight of Java. 
The shores of the Island are generally covered 
W'ith mud banks ; the Coasts are law and mar- 
shy, with small hilis generally covered with 
wood, The center s wel Is with ranges of huge 
mountains, which are commonly denominated 
the Chrystal Mountains, from the quantity* of 
chrystalline stoncs found chere, and these are 
said to run in a North and South direclion. 
At the foot of these mountains lies a large in- 
land lakC;, which is termed a sea by the Dutch, 
and which is reported to be larger than the lake 
of Manilla. From this lake spring all the coa- 

A 



2 SREtCH OF SOUNEO. 

siderable rivers in Borneo, which are said io bc 
more than a hundred in number. The Island 
of Borneo^ though uncomtnonly rich in gold, 
diauionds, campbor, and other valiiable produc- 
tions^ and very fertile in the interior, yet 
from the indolence of the inhabitants^ and the 
want of politj in thé small states of the Coast, 
is believed not to produce rice sufEcient for 
lts own consomption^ and bas been compelled to 
depend on Java. This however may, in a great 
measure have proceeded from the general policy 
adopted by the Dutch. 

The Coasis of Borneo are occupied by a num* 
ber of petty Mahometan states, none of which 
are of great antiquity. The original popuia- 
tion of these is a mixture of Malays, Javanese, 
Bugis and Macasars, but a small number of 
Arabs, and a verj considerable number of Chi- 
nese are always to be found in them., The inte- 
rior of Bomeo is chieily occupied by the numer- 
ous rude agricultural tribes of a people termed 
JDaj/ak^ very few of whom have embraced the 
Moslem religion. The religion of the Dayak 
is little understood, though someof their us.ages 
have attracted notice from their singularity. 
In many places of the Island, ihe possessions of 
the Dayak extend quite to the shore, as on a 



SKETCH OF BORNEO. 3 

considcrable part of the Eastern Coast, withia 
the straits of Macasar. Th^reare considerable 
settlements of the Chinese along almost all the 
principal rivers of Borneo in the interior, and 
it 13 said, that in some places they have attempt- 
ed to acquire a $pccies of independence. 

The loftj mountains^ ranged on the center of 
Borneo, are representod as occupied by a people 
natned Punaras^ in the very rudest state of sa» 
vage life. 

Of the Maritime Districts q/* Borneo. 

The Maritime States of Borneo are chiefïy 
the following : — Ist, Borneo proper— Sd^ Coti — 
Sd;, Passir— 4th, Banjermassin—- 5thj Matten— 
6th^ Pontiana — 7th, Sambas. 

Ist. Borneo properly pronounced Bornch or 
Bronch, is generally reckoned a state of some 
antiquity, and is alluded to in the annals or le- 
gends of Malacca, as a proud independent state, 
by QO means disposed to admit the Sovereignty 
of any other kingdom. The inhabitants refer 
their origin to a tniditionary emigration from 
Johone, hut are ignorant of their own history, 
acccording to every account. Dalrymple^ ia 
bis '' Essays oö the Sooloos^" publkhed in the 



4 SKETCH OF BORNEO. 

first volume of the Oriental Repertorj, alledges^ 
that the Bornejen Empire not onlj extended 
over that Island, but also over the Süki and 
Philippines in aricieot times. I have been able 
to discover no traces of such dominion, and 
Dalrjmple hiraself gives a list of the Sovereigné 
of BorneOj which he perused at Sülü, and 
which onlj recites six names before that of thè 
reigning Sovereign. Thus : — 

1 — Meraham Tumbang Deriimput, 
2— De Pulow, 
3 — Bongso. 
4 — AbduL 

5 — Hussein or De-luba, 
6 — Di Bornei or Appang. 
7 — Depertuan Seef-ed-din^ — the reigning 
Prince. 

y BorneOj liowever, bas some features of an an^ 
cient State, one of which, is the high veneratioa 
for the authoritj of the Prince, which is found 
in all the ancient Malay States, but among very 
few of those of late origin. The Sultan accord- 
ingly maintains a higher degree of state and 
dignity than the greater part of Maiaj Princes. 

The dominions of Borneo proper, are bound- 
ed on the West by the territories of Samba^^ 



SKETCH OE BORNEa, » 

and on the East hy the Mdluder and other dis-^ 
tricts nominallj subject to tbe Sulos. The state 
of Borneo consequently occupies the most 
Northerly districts of the ïsland of Borneo: 
Between Sambas and Borneo are situated a va-« 
riety of small Towns^ such as Serawa, the pi-C 
ratical chief of which, lately cut off the ship 
Commerce, Klakka smd Mokka, the chiefs of 
which are denominated Pangerans, Scribas and 
Falo. 

The Government of Borneo is conducted, ac- 
cording to Mr. J. Jesse^ by the Sultan and a 
Council of his principal Officers^ consisting of 
the Bendhahana^ the De-gadong or chief of the 
household, the Temangüng, the Pa-münclia, of 
administrator and the Shabender. The law of 
the land is the ündang ündang JBorneli^ which 
is said to be of sorae antiquity. 

The river of Borneo is represented as naviga- 
ble for a considerable way above the town for 
ships of great burthen, hut it is very narrow> 
and land locked at the mouth, where it is about 
a quarter of a niile broad. The town of Bor- 
neo is built on posts on a marsh, and in the 
tiraes of Valentine, consisted of nearly 400Q 
houses; it occupied both sides of the river> 
and is situated about ten miles from the moutfa 



i SKETCH OF BOENEO. 

ofit. The productions of Borneo capable of 
export, are goïd-dust, pearls, wax, bird's-nests^ 
camphor and rice, and the general imparts are 
tin, piecc goods^ and most of the prodücts of 
Java. Bonieo proper is oae of the states on tbc 
ïalaod wbich grows rice sufficiënt for its own 
(Èjonsumption. The camphor of Borneo is the 
best in the world, and the next to it in point of 
qualitj, is that of Baros, in Suniitra. The Bor* 
Deo camphor does not exceed the annual quan- 
tity of 35 peculs of 125 Ibs. which costs about 
3^200 Rix Dollars. The ramphor ofSumatra, 
amountsto about 20 peculs, costing 2^200 Rix 
Dollars. A species of camphor is produced iu 
Japan, fromtheleaves of a kind oflaurelj^ which 
costs about 50 Eix. Dollars per pecul. 

The cultivation of pepper was introduced into 
Borneo by the Chinese, between 40 and 50 jears 
ago ; when Mr. Jesse, in 1774, the period of the 
original settlement of Balambanggan, stipulat- 
ed by treaty for the exciusive trade of pepper at 
Borneo, he found, that not more than 4000 pe- 
culs were produced, and this cost about 17 Spa- 
nish Dollars per pecul. I understand that the 
country still produces pepper e^ual at least tp 
this speciüed quantity. 



SfeETCH OP BOnNEO. T 

Tlie trade between Borneo and the Chinese 
port Amoj, is very considerable. According to 
Forster, there were seven junks at Borneo, iti 
1775. The return cargoes procured by the 
Chinese are chiefly caraphor, sea-slug, tortoise* 
shell, bird's-nests, clove, bark, dammar-resio,- 
a species of black-wood, which the Chinese 
Work up into furniture, wax, agal-agal, a spe- 
cies of sea-weed, which yields a gum or glue, 
sandal-wood, rattans, and various barks used in 
dyeing. 

The English were long in the habit of deal* 
ing at Borneo in piece goods to a small extent, 
taking their returns in pepper and gold-dust ,; 
lately however, the inhabitants have had a bad 
name, and are probably at present litüe ac« 
quainted with Europeans. Little intercourse 
and much jealousy subsisted between Borneo 
proper and onr last settlement of Balanbanggan, 
and since that settlement was abandoned, thej 
have cerrainly been occasionally guilty of Pira* 
tical practices. 

The Malay population of Borneo proper id 
distinguished for haughtiness and indoience. 
They are not hov/ever devoid of some arts, par- 
ticularly that of casting brass cannor!, in which 
they are skilfull ; this is also practised at Pa- 
lembang. 



S SKETCH OP BORNEO^^ 

The period of the introduction of Islam into 
Boroeo is iiot known^ biit it appears from the 
accounts of the Portuguese, that it was previ- 
ous to 1530. 

Of the disfricts in Borneo beizveen Borneo 
Pkoper and Coti. 
The districls on the N. E. of Borneo are 
Pappal, Mailuda, Maiigedara and Tirur, the 

jgreatest part of which, on tlie sea coast, espe- 
cialij sorae iime ago^ were under the inÜuence of 
Sülüï. When we received the cession of Ba- 
lambanggan from the SïilüSj thej wcre supposed 
to have ceded to the Englisli the whole of their 
ioflüence in these districts. 

Pappaï. — The district of Pappal lies adja* 
cent to the dominions of Borneo proper^ from 
which it is divided by the river of Ki-manis. 
The soil of the country is reckoned fertile, but 
lies generally uncultivated along the shore ; it 
is fuU of stately trees, and the savanahs abound 
in the species of black cattle^ termed lissang 
and deer. 

The productions of the Coast are sago^ rice, 
beetle-nut, cocoanut-oil, cainphorj wax^ with a 

ft 

small quantity of pepper and cinnamon. On 
the rivcr Ki-manis^ the iahabitants are termed 



SKETCH OF BORNEO. 9. 

Ida-an bj Dalrjmple^ which I consider as only 
aiiother name for Dyak, and these were former* 
]y accustomed to trade to Java in their own 
pro-as. The rivers of Pangalet and Pappal are 
inhabited bj Malajs, as are likewise the dis- 
tricts of Li-battuan, I-namnam, Manyatal^ Pa- 
tatan and Kinarut. The river Mangeabung is 
inhabited by Malajs, but the river is not fit for 
navigation. The river Tavaran is reckoned 
navigable for boats as far as the central lake of 
Kiniballu; it is inhabited by Ida-ans with a 
small colony of Chinese. Abai bas a harbour 
sheltered from the Westerly winds; its river 
with those of Taïnpasak, Lubak afld Ambung, 
together with Salaman and Pandasang, are in- 
habited by Malays. The river of Tampasak is 
also represented to coine from the central lake 
ofKinibalu; after these corae the rivers of Lu 
and Tabalulan, inhabited by the Ida-ans; 
Tampasak consists of about 200 houses. Tam- 
pasak and Tawarran rivers may be regarded as 
the Northern entrances into the great lake of 
Kinibalu, which, according to every account 
must be above 100 miles in circumference, and 
certainly communicates by raeaos of one t)f it9 
rivers with Benyar-rafssing; its waters are re» 

1 



10 SKETCH OF BO^NEO. 

presented as whitish, and in some plaét» \t is 
said to be only from 5 to 6 fathoms in depth. 

Malludu coinprohends the Northern end of 
Borneo. It abounds in grain and provisions^ 
and is reckoned well peopled in the interior by 
the Idaans. It bas a deep bay, on the West sTde 
of which is situated the totvn and harbour of 
Barkoku. On the East side of the bay there 
are pearl banks. This deep bay is said to ap* 
proach to within 40 or 50 miles of the lake 
Kini Balu^ and the mountain Kini Balu appears 
rising abruptly to a stupendous height on the 
West side, wbile on the East^ it slopes gradually 
down to the low lands of Sandakan. The com* 
modities which Malludu produces are nearly 
the same as Borneo proper. The powerful 
tribes of the Idaan or Dayak, who occupy the 
Country around the great lake^ and have a 
sovereign of their own^ who is not dependent on 
the Malays, are represented as averse to coni- 
merce. This, ho wever, is probably a raisrepie- 
sentation, as they certainly have a communica- 
tion with Banyer Massing. Malludu abounds 
particularly in rattans and clove bark, but its 
pearls are not of so fine aft^aterasthe Sulu pearl. 

Manggi-dara is the most Easterly district of 
Borueo^ and extends itself towards the Sulu 



SKETCH OE BORNEO. 11 

Islands in a long narrow point, named Unsang. 
Here the Spaniards formerly bad a settlement 
which they relinquished to the Sulus, but the 
woods still abound in cattle, the breed of which 
was left by them. The Eastern part of Unsang 
likewise abounds in wild elephants which are 
said to be found on no other part of Borneo. 

Manggi-dara produces gold, bird^s nests, waX, 
dammer, and the species of red-wood named Lac- 
ka, with some camphor Considerabie quan- 
tities of sea slug and tortoise-shell raay likewise 
be procured from the numerous shoals and rocks 
and inlets along the coast. 

Paitan^ the name of a river and baj, produces 
a considerabie quantitj of camphor and clove 
bark, but the Coast is very shoalj and foul, as 
are the bajs of Lubuk and Sngut. The river of 
Sngut descends from the lake of Kini Bain. 
Etist of Labuk lies the ïsland of Bahela-tulis, 
which forms the entrance of the baj of Saiida- 
kar, which is about üye leagues deep, and has 
three harbours, that of Buli-luko in the West, 
Segalihut on the South- west^ and Damendungon 
the South. The bay of Sandakar abounds in 
large and small timber, stones, linie, for build- 
ing, and has plenty of water. The Sulus havea 



12 SKETCH OF BORNËO. 

settlement on the small Island of Lnbak-can, 
wbence they carrj on a trade witli the interior 
of Boineo. Great abundance of sea slug and 
agar or eagle wood is procured in tbis vicinity. 
The promontory of Ünsang wbich is by no mcans 
wellexbibited, terminates in a bluffpoint at the 
North East part of which is a small Island nam- 
ed Tambisan; betvveen Sandakan and Tambisan 
are at least 30 large rivers, all of which except 
Mariack, are branches of the srreat river Ki- 
ïiabantangan, which descends from the Lake of 
Kini Balo. The most considerable of all these 
are the most Westerly, especially Towsan-abai 
or the meeting of waters, so called from being 
the conliux of several large streams. The bar 
of this river is shatlow but the coast is clear of 
banks. The North coast of Unsang bas marsy 
bajs, but none sbeltered against Westerif 
wsnds. The harbors of Towsan Duyor and 
Mamuyong howevér deserve to be mentioned. 
On the South coast of Unsang are the rivers 
and Bays of Sibait Tunku, Malaburg, Babatu 
aod Saturung, which are all small. Much sea 
alug however is procured on this coast. Thebay 
of Jiong is very large and contains several Is- 
lands and sboals, and on the hills around it are 
several caves which produce bird's-nests. From * 



SKETCH ÓF BORNÊO. 13 

Jiong to the river Tawaw the country is brokea 
by creeks and riverJ into numerous inlets. 

Tirun or Tedong is the common name of a 
large district on the East of Borneo, which has 
never been much frequented bj European ship* 
ping. The coast of Tirun is in general a low 
«wamp overgrown with Mangroves, inhabited 
by a savage people addicted to piracy, and nam- 
ed Orang Tedong or Tirun who have never era- 
braeed the religion of Islam. They are proba- 
bly like the Idaan^ a tribe of Dayak. Dalryra- 
ple observes in his Oriënt. Repert. vol. I^ page 
552, that the Tirun and Idaan languages are 
equally foreign to the Sulu, and each other. 
The matter, however, has never been properly 
investigated. The mountains of the Idaan are 
at a great distance towards the interior. The 
Tirun country produces a much greater quanti- 
iy of bird's-nests than all other regions of the 
East. The whole country is covered v^ith sago 
trees, which afford the chief subsistance of the 
inhabitants. The rivers are numerous, large 
and navigable. Bef?ides sago and bird's-nests, 
the chief products of the country are gold, 
wax, honey, canes, rattans, mafts, seaslugand 
a species of gulega and bezoar. Some say it 



ï^ SKETCH OF BORNEO» 

a!so produces salt petre. The river Sibocu, iis 
Northern boundary, is said to have tbirty cam- 
pongs on its banks, and about 1000 people, and 
to produce about 40 peculs of bird*s-ne&ts and 
100 of wax^ besides sago, honey, eanes, rattans 
and matts. Thrs river is large but there are 
shoals at the entrance. Sambagung is a smaller 
river whicb produces in its environs about 20 
peeuls of birdVnests. The river LidongorLili* 
dong is large, and its district populous, being 
estimated by the Sulus to contain 10,000 inhabi- 
tants. It produces about25 peeuls of bird'snests. 
The Bay of Salawang or Sieatae produces 
about 100 peculs of black bird Vnests. 

Balangan or Barunyan is a campong of some 
cortsequence, situatéd on a large river of that 
name. It was formerly subject to Passir, but 
at present it is said to have a ehief of its own, 
it produces a great quantity of gold and also 
earÜi oil, 

Barovi^ or Barong is an independent state gov- 
erned by its own Sultan, and produces a great 
number of bird's nests and other Tirun products, 
£uch as wax and seaslugs. This country bas a 
considcrable trade in cocoa-nut» with Tuali in 
Celebes. The river is situatéd in the bottoin of 



SKETCH OF BOUNEO. 15 

a deep bay. The small state of Kuran is said 
to lie on the same river as Barow Itis likewise 
governed bj a chief who assiimes the title of 
Sultan and who is frequently at enmity with the 
Sultan of Barow, though the subjects of both 
are chieflj Orang Tedong. About the year 
1770, according to Forster, while these two 
princes were at war, one of theni called the Su- 
lus to bis assistance. The Sulus seized the op- 
portunitj, niaking botb princes prisoners, and 
after ravaging the country carried them both to 
Sulu, where they were released on condition of 
becoming tributary to Sulu and confining their 
trade to that nation. Dalrymple asserts Barow 
to be ia alUance with Sulu, and Kuran as tribu« 
tary to it, 

South of Barow lies Talisyar, an inconsider- 
able campong, beyond that a considerable place 
named Dumaring by Dalrymple, but by Rader- 
macber Danmiar, the Datoo of which bas the 
title of Baginua. To the South of this lies Sa- 
jnuanti, which is under a Datoo Tumangung, 
and beyond that the river of Tapeandurian or 
Tupedarian, the inhabitants of which have a 
bad reputation among Eastern traders. 

Coti. or as it is conimonly denominated Coti 
Lama, lies considerably to the South of Samu- 



i& SKETCH OF BORNEO. 

anti, and between them are a number of towns 
and villages, the names of wbich are not gene- 
ralij known even to Eastern traders. The towQ 
of Coti is situated aböüt 50 miles up the river- 
of that name. The trades and products of the 
country are nearlj the same as at Borneo proper. 
This tovvn which rosé upon the decline of Pas- 
sir, is chieflj inhabited by Bugis traders. The 
Sultan resides considerably further up the river 
\i?ith a few Malays and a great number of Da- 
yaks subject to him. According to Radermacher 
the Sultan of Coti, iii 1780, was named Hage- 
ahmed. 

Aparkarang Hes to the South of Coti, and f» 
likevrise under the authority of a Sultan, who, 
in 1780^ was named Sultan Thora, This place 
is at present so insignificant, that I have never 
been able to meet any Trader, whether Native or 
European, that had ever heard of it. I believe, 
however, that it lies between the river Montu 
and the dangerous bay of Balik-papan, so nam- 
ed, because almost every boat that enters it ia 
overset by the strength of the current. Between 
Balik-papan and Passir, formerly, in the time of 
Valentyn, lay a town inhabited by a very brave 
and ferocious race of Dayak, who made use of 
the most dangerous poisooed bow-arrows^ an4 



SKETCH OF BORNEO. 



17 



Sumpits or blow-pipes, \vith which they on some 
occasions made such havock, that thcir campons; 
was ternied ^'^the grave of Slave Catchers.** 

Passir may be considered as a Bugis colony 
founded by the state of Wajjo ; it is sitiiated 
about 45 miles up the river of that name^ which 
has two f ithoms water on the bar. The town 
consisted of about 300 houses on the North 
side, chiefly occupied by the Bugis, and the 
Sultan's Fort was on the South side. About 
30 jears ago, it carried on a very coiisiderable 
traffick, but has since that time been greatly on 
the decline from intestine dissentions. The na- 
tive products of the country are gold;, bird's- 
nests, wax and rattans^, and almost all the staples 
of Java fitid a ready sale at Pasf^ir ; the Biigis 
withdrew to Pulu Laut^ termed by the natives 
Lautpulu where they have established a consi-» 
derable town on the island inside of the straits 
Pulu Laut. The English sent the Brillance to 
form a factory here in 1172, but some e vil coni- 
niotions caused the design to be abandoned, 
both Passir and Coti were in ancient times con- 
quered by the Macassers. They entered into 
alliance with the Dutch in 1686. 



18 SKETCH OF BORNËO* 

Slmpanahan, under a small chief wbo lias the 
title of Pangeran, lies to the South West of Pas- 
sir. It IS an incoiisiderable town with few inha* 
bitants with little trade, and producing onlj a 
few mats and bird's nesis. Valentja in his 
time states the campongs between Passir and 
Pülu Laut as follows^ Passir Brava 15 miles 
from Passir, thcn comes Paniatan, Apper Pa- 
üiukan^ Capus^ Catappa and Carnla. 

Pulu Laut is about 40 miles in its greatest 
length and 20 in breadth and its principal iiiha^ 
bitants at present are of Bogis extraction. 

Of Banjar Massing. 

Banjar Massing is the chief state on- iht 
South side of the Island of Borneo, and waa 
till very latelj reckoned the most powerful on 
the Island. It lies on the river of that name 
which is of considerable size arïd rises at a 
great distance in the interior of the country. 
According to popular report it descends from 
the great central lake of Kini-balu. The 
mouth of the river is very shallow^ not exceed- 
ing 12 or 13 feet in depth which compells trad- 
ing vessels of any magnitude to remain in the 
offing. After passing the bar, the water deep- 
cns to six or sevcnfathoms, The Moslem popu- 



SKETCH OE BORNEO. Ï9 

lafïon about the jear 1720, amounted, ^ccording 
to Valentjn, to about 7,200 persons and in 1780, 
according to Radermacher, they amounted io 
8^500. They are a mingled mass of Javanese, 
Macasers, Bugis and Malavs of Johore, Me- 
nangkabaw and Palenibang, of whom the Java- 
nese may be regarded as the most numerous. 
The state was founded by a fugitive prince of 
Madura nearly related to the Susuhonang, and 
hence the aOlectioii of the Javanese titles and 
names of places, which has always prevailed at 
Banjar Massing. 

Tabanyan on the East side of the bay^ situ- 
ated on a small river, is the place where the 
Dutch vessels were wont to lie. ït is a small 
campong, containing only about 250 sonls. ïii 
the vicinity of Tabanyan and on the S. E. of 
the river Banjar are situated the following cam- 
pongs, Moluk containing about 200 inhabitants, 
Blanang containing about 100, Tambangan 
containing 80, and Takisong containing about 
50 inhabitants, all of whom are Moslems. The 
Dutch fort is situated on the outside of the 
town of Banjar Massing or Tatas, at a plaee 
named Clayang on the West of the river. ït 
was of pentagonal form and fortified with pali- 
sadoes, with three bulwarks towards the river 



20 SKETCH OF BORNEO. 

and two towards the land. Banjar is under 
the immediate autboritj of the Sultan's eldest 
son^ who has the title of Pangerang Dupa. 
The residence of the Sultan was at Caju Tan- 
gi previous to the year 1771^ when it was re- 
moved by Sultan Soliman Shahid Alla to Mar- 
tapura^ about three days journey up the river. 
This is a üiie hunting station^ as the name seems 
to indicate, and the Sultan and his Court are said 
to be greatly devoted to this amusement, which 
they pursoe on horseback and catch deer with 
nooses. Large horses are accordingly in high 
request at Banjar. According io Rader- 
macher^ the population of the Moslem carnpongs 
on the river Banjar in the year 1780 was as 
füllows; Cayu-tangi with 200 inhahitantSj Ban- 
jar Massing or Tatas 2000 inhabitants, Marta- 
pura or Bnmi Kinchara 1800 iohabitants, Cohin 
or ohl Banjar 100 inhabitants, Bekrompi and 
Lusong 500 inhabitants, Pamanki 100 inhabi- 
taatSj Brambang 80 inhabitants, Moera-bahan 
50 inhabitants, Sungey-benar 40 inhabitants, La- 
buang-mas 60 inhabitants. Taping 100 inhabi- 
tants, Nagara 550 inhabitants, Benois Ampat 
90 inhabitants, Calyong Campong 200 inhabi- 
tants, Amontey 520 inhabitants, Calona 120 in- 
habitants, Manapang 120 inhabitants. 



SKETCH OF BORNEO. 



21 



The terrltorie-; of Banjar extend a consider- ^ 
able wav alonc: shore on the West of the rivor, 
and also towards the interior, but the grcat 
mass of the population are not Moslems but 
Dayaks. The princïpal districts are thefollow- 
ing, Sibungu contairis about 1000 buts, Biajo 
or little Dayak contains about 50 campongs, or 
negiries, with a very numerous population of 
D lyaks. Biajo or great Dayak contains 73^ 
campongs, inhabited by the mostnumerous and 
povverful tribe of Dayak in the Isiand of 
Borneo^ and who extend to the centre of the Is- 
iand. The foHowing districts are generally 
dependent on Banjar, but sometimes assert a 
dubious sort of independence, the Moslems 
being few in number and the Dayaks extremely 
numerous. Radermacher, in 1780^ gives the 
estiniated Moslem population, and mentions ihe^ 
namcs of different chiefs who appear to be 
Dayak. Mandawai^ situated on the river of 
that name, contains about 200 Moslems and 
several thousand Dayaks. The chief in 17S0 
was Kyai Ingebai Suradi Rajah. Sampit situ- 
ated on a much larger river, contains about 
400 Moslems besides Dayaks, and the chief was 
Kyai Ingebai Sudi Ratu. Pambrang, situated 
OQ a smaller river, contains about 150 Moslems, 



22 SKETCH OF BORTSEO. 

and the chief was Radin Jaja. Cofa-ringfn^ 
which is situated on a large river^ as is supposed 
more than 100 miles frora the shore^, boats 
"being generalij ten or tvvelve dajs in reachin^ 
it^ contains about 800 Moslems or Malajs, with 
a verj powerful tribe of Dajak. The chief is 
stiled Ratu Cota-ringin^ and his subjectioii to 
Banjar is more nominal than real. 

The productions of Banjar are gold of a finer 
touch coramonly than that of SambaSj which is 
oiily 7 touch, whereas that of Banjar is often 
8 or 9, diamonds which are fine and iarge^ hut 
yerj dear, bird's-nests of the best sort to the 
quantitj of about 50 peculs, wax, dragon's 
bloodj bezoar of diSferent kinds, rattans and 
matts. Thej have abundance of iron but no 
steel, with the mode of preparing which thej 
are unacquainted. Pepper maj be considered 
as the chief staple of the countrj. Most of 
the productions of Java, as Rice and Sugar, Salt 
and Opium find a readj sale at Banjar. Piece 
goods and cbina vvares^ especiallj porcelain 
are also in considerable request. The gold 
mines of Banjar, are said to lie verj near the sur- 
face at the depth of about three fathoms. 
Those at Kirsan and Diiku, which are verjrich, 
lie in a red marie ; above the mine there gene- 



SKETCH OF EOHNEO. 23 

rally lies an incrustatloii like rattan woodj be- 
nrath \vbich the gold-dust is found in a red 
earth. There is also an ore namod Mas-aurong 
found in the samc mines^ with iron stone pebbles 
and sometimes chrjstal. 

The diamond mines of Banjar are situated 
an:iong the mounlains of the Biajus. They 
are found in a soil of carron black gravel at the 
surface, and the pits are sometimes carried to 
the depth of ten fathoms. The mines are 
wrought with verj little skill, generally under 
the superintendance of a native Biaju who is 
termed the Malera. Gold-dust is often found 
in the same mine with the diamond. The Sul- 
tan claims all diamonds above the weight of 
five carats, but this claim is generally evaded. 

The English seem to have been the first Eu- 
ropcan nation that frcquented Banjar Massing 
for purposes of trade, unless we suppose^ as is 
extremely probable, that they were prcceded 
by the Portuguese. According to Valentyn, 
the English began to trade to Banjcir ia 1609, 
while he states, that the Dutch onlv bes-an to 
frequent Banjar or Martapura occasionally 
about löl^i. About the year 1700, the Eng- 
lish fixed themselves in Banjar^ with about 40 
English and iOO Bugis-men, at which time th<t 



24 SKETCH OF EOHNEO. 

chief of Banjar had the title of Panambahan^,* 
and was of the family of Sumbava. In the 
course of the first jear^ difFerences occurred 
bet ween the English and the Natives^ and the 
Engiish were successfuU^ and sacked üve of 
their principal campongs, Banjar;, Banjar Mas- 
Eiiig, Cajü-tangi, Tatas and Cartapura» A pa- 
ciücation took place, and the English after- 
"wards reduced their establishment to ten Eng- 
lishmea and 40 Bugis-men. Hostilities agaia 
ensued in the year 1706^ and the English were 
expelled, those who escaped proceeding to Ba- 
tavia, ïn this year 1706, the Dutch began to 
trade to Banjar again^ and continued it with 
some interrnptions, bnt without forming a re- 
gülar settleraent till 1747, af ter which they 
formed their establishment at Tatas, which con- 
tinued till it was abandoned by Daendels in 
1807-8, about the time of the decline of the 
pepper trade. 

It appears, that so early as the year 1690, 
the Portuguese had settled Missionaries at Ban- 
jar, and according to Valentyn, they enumerat- 
ed bctween three and four thousand converts to 
the Catholic faith, soon after the comniencement 
of last Century. Of the present state of these 
Christians I iim ignorant. 



SKETCH OF BORNEO. 25 

Of the JVesteni Coast of Borneo. 

The Western Coast of Borneo like the East- 
«rn, has for a long time been broken down into 
a variety of small and feeble states. In earlier 
times, however, it seenis to have been cbiefly 
under the inflaence of the two states of Saca- 
dina and Sarnbas, the most ancient and pov/er- 
fuU of which was Sacadina. The Dutch began 
to trade to Sacadina in 1604, abont which pe- 
riod the place possessed a considerable trade. 
In the year IG09, they entered into a treaty 
with Sarnbas, by which they bound themselve^ 
to support Sambas against Sacadina, and to a- 
bandon their trade to the latter place ; the SuU 
tan of Sambas, obliging himself in his turn to 
grant the Dutch a monopoly of the trade of 
Sambas to the cxclusion of the Spanisb, Portu- 
guese, Eiiglish, French, and other nations of 
Europe. In 1623, the Dutch finally abandoned 
their factory at Sacadina. 

Sacadina, according to Valentyn, consisted 
about the beginning of last century of nearly 
600 houses, being a town similar to Banjar 
Massing. At that period the Sultan was reek- 
oned much richer, but less powerful than him 
of Banjar Massing, and it was thought that he 

o 



26 SKETCH OF BORNEO, 

could npt easily muster above 1000 men at arms. 
His infiuence however, extended over a great 
tract cf country^ commencin^ about the pro- 
inontory of Kandu-vvangan ofF the small 
island of Pulii-Manku, and extending a- 
long' hy Pagaruii-timong, commorily lermed 
Tarijoiig Sambar to the present town 
of Mattan, which lies about 40 miles to the 
South of the ancient Sacadioa, and nearly the 
samc from the mouth of the river Mattan. The 
ancient Sacadina was situated near the niouth of 
the river of that name, which is navigable by 
boats for 150 miles into the interior ; óf the 
town at present scarce a vestige remains. About 
5 miles to the Northward of Sacadina lies the 
river Simpang, and the modern town of Simpang 
lies about 20 miles up the river. To the North- 
West of Simpang He several large rivers, • which 
run up from the bight of Sacadina towards 
Pontiana, nearlj insulating the high land of 
Krimata or rather Karimata. From the point 
of Karimata lies a chain of Islands and Rocks, 
iho principal of which are Panambangan, on 
the groupe nearest the shore, and Karimata and 
Soorutoo, which tend outside outwards towards 
Balitan. The isle of Karimata is inhabited, 
aad produces iroa and tia like Balitan. About 



SKETCH OF BORNEO. 27 

the yoar 1600, these islands were places of some 
consoquence, and as miich frequenled by tha 
traders ot Sacadina as Ihsy have lately been by 
Pirates and Lamuns. The territories of Saca- 
dina extcnded in ancient limes to the nnodsrn 
Mampawa^ if not still f^irther North, and in- 
chided the rivor of Pontiana. ïrj the time of 
Valentyn, the interioi' kingdovn of Landak was 
also deper.dent on Sacadina. Landalc >vas ia 
the most ancient times a dependency on Snka- 
pura in Java, and as Sacadina itsclf was regard- 
ed as a dependency of Bantam, on account of 
some ancient claims, the Javanese Princes front 
time to time asserted their pretensions to the 
sovereignty of the whole country of Sacadina, 
thongh generally unable to give either weight 
or colour to their pretensions. Aftcr the rise of 
Pontiaaa, however, iii 1770, the Sultan of B lu- 
tam, lest his influeuce shoulJ be totaliv annihi- 
latcd, consigned over to the Dutch the whole of 
his claims on these territories for the sum of 
Spanish Dollars 20,000. In 177(3, the Datch 
formed settlements at Pontiana and Landak. 
In 1786, they attackcd Sacaxlina, then governed 
by Raj ih Ali, who had ahandoned Rhio or 
Riaw. Sacadina was at this time a place of 
considerable trade, and thougii frequcntcd some- 



28 SKETCH OF BOTINEO. 

times bj Dutch vessels, it had long been a snb- 
ject of jpdloüsy to that nation, from being the 
principal haunt of the English and French 
traders on the island of Borneo. The Dutch 
force emp]oye(^ against Sacadina^ consisted of 
500 Europeans and 1000 Javanese, with two 
large armed brigs^ and a great number of proas, 
The Sultan of Pontiana sent along with them 
his son the present R-ïjah, with a number of 
armed Malay proas, and about 400 Bugese- 
men. Sacadina was sacked and burnt, but lit- 
tle propertj was seized, as the inhabitants es- 
caped with the greater part of their property to 
Mattan. Since that periode Saeadina has never 
had anv considerable trade, nor been re-scttled 
to any considerable extent, though favourably 
situated for traffic in a country which affords 
all the common productions of Borneo, e^pecial- 
ly carnphor, benjar.iin, dragon's blood, agar 
wood and rattans. Mattan is still governed by 
a branch of the family of the ancient Sultans of 
Sacadina, but this branch ha3 long been prover- 
bial for their stupidity. The river of Malfau 
and the territories subject to it which still com- 
prehend the greater part of those which belong- 
ed to the ancient Sacadina, are all extremely 
well adupted to trade, and excite the cupidity 



SKETCH OF BORNEO, 23 

of his nf»:a;libours, especialiy Pontiana. Tbe 

preseilt Rajah, however, though no crucl tyraüt, 

is generally despised as a besotted opiinn eater, 

who has neither taste nor abilities for state af- 

fairs. The Piratrs of Laiiuns, however, who oc* 

casionally haunt Panarnbangan, Karimata, and 

even Sacadina, are not harboured in Mattan, 

and the Rajih is ut present on good terms with 

the Sultan of Pontiana. The most rcmarkable 

circumstance connected with Mattan is that the 

Rajah pvossesscs the fmest and largest diamond 

in the world^ which has hithcrto been discover- 

ed. This diamonJ, which is said to be of the 

finest water, weighs 367 carats. The celebrat- 

ed pitt diamond weighs only 127 carats. The 

Mattan diamond is shaped like an egg, with aa 

indcnted hollow near the smaller end. Ifc was 

disco vered at Landak abont 90 jears ago, and 

though the possession of it has occasioned nu- 

mcrous wars, it has been about 80 jears in tlie 

possession of the Mattan family. jMany jears 

ago, the Governor of Batavia sent a Mr. Slu- 

vart to ascertain the weight, quality, and vaine 

of this diamond; and toeiideavonr to purchase it, 

and in this mission, he was accompanied bv the 

present Sultan of Pontiana. After examining it 

Mr. Stuvart offered IjO.OÜO Dollars for the 



30 SKETCH OF BORNEO. 

diamond, the sum to which he was limited, and 
in additioe to this sam two war brig?, with 
their gnns and ammunitioiij together with a cer- 
tain number of great gnns^ and a quantitv of 
powder and shot. The Rajab, however/refused 
to deprive nis family of so valuable ahereditary 
possession^ to which the Malavs attach the mi- 
racülous power of curing all kind of diseases, 
bj means of the water in which it is dipped^ and 
with which they imagine the fortune of the fa- 
milj is connected. 

Pvlampawa, though sitnated to the North of 
Pantiana^ requires our previous attention as an 
older statCj which sprung np betvveen Sacadina 
and SambaSj and at last becatne indepeiid ent of 
either. Mampawa is sitnated near the moiith 
of a small river, and vessels may reach both the 
town and fort with their guns ; being greatly 
rcsorted to by traders, especiaily English and 
Portuguese, it soon became a place of consider- 
able importance. 

According to Radermacher in 17S0, it con- 
tained ffom one to two tliousand housi^s. The 
Rajah had the title of Panambahan^ which is 
regarded as the next in dignity to thit of Sul- 
tan, At that time his name was Muscan a,! 



SKETCH OF BORN'EO. •'^ l 

M:H?eri, but he had given u]> the administration 
of afFairs lo bis sou Onsti Mas. In 1772, a war 
commonced betwecn IMampawa «nd Sambas, 
concern ing the possession of Monterado and Sa- 
lakan, which lie between M impawa and Sain- 
bas, but have gencrally been adniittcd to belong 
to the latter. These two settlements are chiefly 
occupied by Chinese,, nearly 30,000 of whom 
are settled in them, and are extromely produc- 
tive of gold-dust. Tlie JMaoipawa-nien having 
rava^ed Salakan, the Sultan of S;imbas, in hls 
turn attacked Mampawa, and the Panambahaii 
invited the mediation of Pontiana Th is me- 
diation succeeded, and the Sultan of Samhas 
wilhdrew bis army, on receivinj^ the sum of 
10,000 Dollars, tbe greater part of which was 
advanced by the Sultan of Pi)ntiana After the 
retreat of the Sambas army, the Panambahan of 
Mampawa positively refused to re-imburse the 
Sultan of Pontiana, who in bis tufn attacked 
Mampawa. After a seige of three months, be 
was compelled to brqali up with loss from Mam- 
pawa, to which he found that Sambas snpplied 
assistance. Tiiis was tbe foundation of the un- 
interruptcd state of bostility, which bas from 
tbat period snbsisted betwe«'n Sambas and Pon- 
tiana, The Sultaa of Pontiana made anotber 



^"•* SKETCH OF BORNEO. 

attempt, with a small force supplied him bj the 
Butcb, and was ag:ain baMed. After the des- 
truclion of Sacadina in 1786, however, tbey as- 
«isted him a third time, with an armanisnt con- 
sisting of one vessel of 70 gtuis, another of 50 
guns, a third of 30 gons, together with a large 
Iransportj, and some smaller vessels^ when Mam- 
pawa sorrendered without uring a gun, and the 
eldêst son of the Sultan was appointed Panam- 
bahan. The Rajah or oid Panambaha» escaped 
up the river, where he remained tiil be died. 
The Dutch established a fjictory at Mampawa 
of 32 Europeans, and a small sloop in the river, 
and divided the duiies with the Panambaban, 
but abandoned it at the same time as Pontiana 
in 1790, after tbis, the new Panambaban per- 
juitted the son of tiie deposed Rajah to return 
to Mampawa, and reside in a private capacity 
with a small establishnient, and the cmptj title 
of Rajah. 

Sambas is situated about 30 miles up the river 
of tbat nanfie, and the territory runs a considera- 
ble \^ay into the interior, and is rich in gold- 
dust. About the jear 1600^ and also about the 
year 1700, tbis appears to have been a consider- 
able state, and to have extended its swaj far in- 
to the iuterior., Tbis is the first of the Eastern 



SKETCH OF BORNEO. 33 

States with wliich the Diitcli foriued an exclu- 
sive tieaty, iun\ at that time the cliief appcars io 
have had the title of Sultan. Ia every pcriod, 
hovvever, this state has beeu more distinguished 
for its piracies than its coinnaerce, and has been 
always addicted to a^gressious on ils neigh- 
boui-9. For the last ten years especially^ it has 
been notorious over all the East, as the commou 
haunt of every descriptioti of Pirates and La- 
nuns, and it has forfeited every title to be consi- 
dered as a trading state, or as a state, the exist- 
ence of which is consistent with either the aafe- 
ty of coinmerce or the safety of its neighbours. 
It now appears that great numbers of the Pi- 
rates and Sea-rovers of the East have settled at 
Sambas, and intermarried with the aucient inba« 
bitants. 

Of PONTIANA. 

As Pontiana is of more recent origin than any 
other of the Malay states, so it is almost the 
only one in which the rise can be accurately 
traced. The account of the origin of Pontia- 
na was procured by Mr. J. Burn, from the late 
Sultauj who was its founder and bis principal 
associate in the course of a residcnce of several 



S4 



ÜKETCH OP BORNEO. 



years at that place, and communicafed latt ly iéi' 
Mr. R'jfües, together with the result of his en- 
quires concernin^ the interior of the island of 
Borneo. The information thus collected has 
evrry claim to authority, and is the more valua- 
Ble^ becalise it illustrates in a striking manner 
tbe origin of the other Malay states, the 2:reater 
number of which may be fairly considered as 
counterparts to Pontiana. 

Pontiana was founded in 1770, by Seyyad. 
Abdul Rehman, the son of Seyyad Hassan, by a 
woman of inferior rank, and born at Mattan. 
His father, Seyyad Hassan, was a native of Ara- 
bia, highly respected among the Malay Rajah» 
w ho had married at Mattan. He afterwards 
took up his residence at Mampawa, where he 
died a few nionths before Pontiana was founded, 
He had several wives, and Jeft several children, 
hut none of them distinguished themselves biit 
Abdnl Rehman The latter possessing great 
abilities, intrepidity, and a most insinnating ad- 
dress, soon became an enterprizing and siiccess- 
ful Merchant, and realized considcrable proper- 
ty. He married a sister of the Sultan of Ban- 
jar, and also a sister of the Rajah of Manipawa, 
hui gencrally resided at Banjar Massing. Pos- 
sessing a brig or sloop, and several war proas 



SKETCH OF BORNEÖ. 35 

of his own, besides several merchant vessels, he 
applied vigorously to comnieice, frequeiiting 
Coti, Passir, Palenibang, and otlier Malay ports, 
but seldom visitiiig Java. His operations, how- 
ever. wcre not eutirelv coiifiiied to commercial 
pursiiits, but wben favorabie opportiinities oc- 
curred, he showed no greater repugnanee to 
piracy than is usual among the Arabs. He had 
already cut off a Diitch vesscl in the vicinity of 
Banca, and an English one at Passir, and done 
Riany things whieh were highlj disapproved by 
the venerable Seyyad, his father, vvhen at last^ 
aboiit a veai' or eiffhteen raonths before his fa- 
ther's dcath, he succeedcd in cutting off at Pas« 
sir a French ship, with a very rich cariio. by 
whlch he incurred the displeasure of his father, 
vho renonaecd all further communication with 
hini. The manner in which the ship was cut 
off, however, he deemed so discreditable, that 
he never would relate the story, though he ad- 
mittcd the fact, alledging, that previous to this 
transaction, some of his vessels had been stopped 
by the Freneb, and his womeu ill treated. An 
old wonïan, who had been the Sultanes Concu- 
bine, and who had borne a material part in the 
transaction, rclated the following circumstances 
to Mr. Burn, after the death of the Sultan, 



36 SKETCH OP ËOR^EO. 

After liaving: greatly ingratiated himself wittl 
the French Captain, lie informed him that he 
intended to present him witli two beaiitiful slavc 
girls, at the same time expressing a desire to see 
the ship. The Freneh Captain invited him oa 
board, catching at the bait, and Sejyad Abdiil 
Rehman promised to bring the slave girls with 
him. The Captain prepared an entertainment^ 
and saluted him as he came on board, which h(j 
did with several folio wers properly instructed, 
but apparently unarmed. He sat down with 
his people, and partook of the entertainment, 
after which, he called the two women he had 
brought, one öf whom was the Concubine who 
related the story. Abdul Rehman pointed io 
the Concubine, and desircd the Captain to con- 
duct her to his cabin, the Captain did so, and 
the woman, as she had been instructed, secured 
the door. The rest of the Frenchmen were al! 
on deck, as well as a number of his Malay fol- 
Icwers. Abdul Rehmaa gave the signal with 
his hand, anrf the whole of them were instantly 
creesed, the lascars, at the same time throwing 
themselves into the sea, according to their usual 
practise. The Captain was then put to death, 
and the vessel secured. When Abdul Reh- 
man heard of his father's indignation at his coü- 



SItETCtt OF BORNéO. 37 

duet, Iie left. Passir, and wlien he had almost 

reaclied Mampawa, he was informed of his 
death. Rosolving now to settle at Sango, in 
the interior of Bonieo, he entered the river of 
Pontiana or rather Lava, and proceeded up it 
about twelve miles to the conflux of the river 
of Landak, with that of Pontiana, anchoring 
for the night at the point where the rivers join. 
In the morning, being struck with the sitiiation 
of the place, which had never been inhabited, 
he determined to settle it, and proposing the 
plan to his followers, most of them acceded to 
it, hut a few objected and left hira, After 
repeated discharges of his great guns loaded 
with shot, into a small island near the point, 
Abdnl Rehman landed, cut down some trees, 
displayed his colours, and prayed for success to 
the undertaking, 

Having erected a small house for the night, 
he slcpt a shore, and naraed the place Pontiana 
ar rather Pontianak, which is the name the Ma- 
lais give to a specire of the forests, which ap- 
pears in the form of a winged feraale ; this was 
in the jear 1770. He then built a Mosque on 
the small island, which still remains, having 
been renewed on the same spot^ and a fort oa 



38 SKETCH OF BvORNEO. 

the point of land, which comrn ind-* tlic entranees 
of the rivers af Saiigo and Landak, whithcr he 
also brought up the French ship. The crew of 
this vessel he emplojed as slaves in clearing the 
jungle, and his folio wers biiiU houses along the 
banks of the river ; — such was the foundation 
of Pontlana. As soon as Abdul Rehman was 
settled in his new^ residence, he visited Mampa- 
wa to pray over the tomb of his father, whose 
forgiveness he had never procured, and this ce- 
remonj he continued io perform at stated pe- 
riods until the year of his death. 

As the traders to Landak, Sango, and other 
settlements in the interior of Borneo, were ne- 
cessitated to pass by Pontiana, Seyvad Abdul 
Rehman daily aequired new settlers by hls insi- 
ïiuating address and the protection which he was 
ready to afford the traders against theLanuns, ' 
and he was joined by several Bugis and Chinese 
tiaders from Mampawa, Sambas, and other Ma- 
lay ports. He next a[)plied to Rajah Haji of, 
Kcaw, who conferred on hini the titic of Sultan 
of Pontiana. By what right such a title was 
conferred it is impossible to conjecture, hut he 
inimediately assumed the title, and established a 
Court in a very expensive style. His profusion 
attracted ncw followers and he was joined by va- 



SKETCH OV BOHNKO. 



33 



rious Arabs, who, though they impaircd his for- 
tune, vet for the time encreased his consequence. 
By these means, Pontiana, in the space of a sin- 
gle jear became a considerable settlement, and 
attracted the jeah)usy of the Rajah of Landak. 
The Rajah of Landak was at this time a de- 
pendant of the Sultan of Bantam^ and being 
alarmed at the reports which he heard, that the 
Sultan of Pontiana intended io block up the 
river and engross its trade, he dispatched an em- 
bassj to Pontiana, to enquire what were his in- 
tentions. The Sultan of Pontiana, though he 
professed that his intentions were not of a hos- 
tile nature, took care to display his power and 
fired ofF his great guns repeatedly m their 
presence. They transmitted to Bantam a verj 
exaggerated account of the strength of Pon- 
tiana, the Cv)nsequence of which was, that the 
Sultan of Bantam conceiving himself unable to 
protect Landak, resigned it to the Dutch. Ia 
1776 the Dutch sent a strong force from Batavia 
to Pontiana to establish themselves in their new- 
ly acquired possessions, and the Sultan of Pon- 
tiana, intimidated by their power, allo wed them 
to settle at Pontiana, where they built a stock- 
ade fort and mounted on it six guns. They 
also established a factoryj consisting of a Resi- 



40 SKETCH OF BORNEO. 

dent, a Secretary and his clerk, a Sur^eon, at 
Captain with a Subaltern^ and 25 European 
soldiers. Thej also stationed an armed cutter 
in the river which was likewise maniied with 
Europeans, so that they had altogether about 
100 Europeans, but no native soldiers. The 
Dutch now imposed what duties they pleased, 
and allowed the Sultan but a very small share of 
ihem^ which circumstance, togelher with his 
profuse manner of living, compelled ths Sultan 
to run deeply in debt. In the year 17S6, the 
Dutch, assisted by the force of Poiitiana^ dis- 
troyed Sacadina and Mampawa, in the latter of 
which they placed the Sultan of Pontiana's 
eldest sön as Panambahan, establishing there a 
factory of their own^ dependent on that of Pon- 
tiana. Previous, however, to the settlement of 
the Dutch at Pontiana, it was visited by a 
Freuch frigate, commanded by the b rot her 
of the French Captain^ whom the Sultan had 
formerly cut ofF at Passir, and who had been 
dispatched for the express purpose of attacking 
hinij but as the frigate could not pass the bar, 
and durst not send in her boats to attack the 
place, she was able to effect nothing, and was 
compelled to retura after destro^ing a few proas 
at the mouth of the river, which had never 
had any coacera in the crime of the Sultan. 



SKETCH OF EORNEÓ. 41 

In the year 1790 the Dutch withdrew their 
filctories from both Poiitiana and Mampav/a, 
after a residence of 14years, findingthat though 
they had imposed what duties they pleased, and 
given the Sultan only what share they liked, 
their profits vvere far from coiiipeiisating the 
expence of the establishment. We have no 
detail of the expeace and profits of this factory 
unless for the year 1779 when the expence 
amounted to abont 884^ pounds sterling and the 
receipts only to about 160 pounds. The resi- 
dence of the Dutch at Pontiana was not without 
occasional misnnderstandings occurring betweea 
them and the Sultan. One of the most serious 
of these seems to have originated entirely froiu 
their ignorance of Malay customs. Soon after 
the seltlement of the factory at Pontiana a siri 
or prepared betel was presented by a male slave 
io the Surgeon. Among the Malays this is re-- 
garded as an overture to an intrigue from some 
femule of rank, hut the Surgeon was ignorant 
of this custom^ and the slave had retired with- 
out speaking a word. The Surgeon holding 
the siri ia bis hand met thé Sultan, and related 
to him the circumstancej expressing his sirrprize 
at what it couid mean. The Sultan requcsted 



42^ SKETCH OF B^ORNXÖl. 

!iiiïï to poilit out the person wbo had brouglit it 
\^hich Iie did immediatelv, and the slave being 
seized conf^ssed that the siri had been sent by 
one of the Sultan's concubines The Sultan 
immediat( ly_, without farther explanation;, order- 
ed the slave's head to be ciit ofF in the presence 
of the Surgeonj and the woman was dispatched 
privatel}'. The Dutch Resident and the rest o^ 
the factory took the alarm and declared that 
they would return to Java. The Sultan en- 
deavoured io pacify them^ bui in vain^ and 
ihey retired to Batu Lavang, a solitary rock> 
on whicb a fort is built about five miles belovv 
Pontiana, Here thej fortiüed tbemselves and 
posted the armed cutter and uring upon all 
proas, atiempted to bloek up the ri.ver. The 
Sultan repeatedly attenipted to persuade the Re- 
sident to return, but findingali remonstrances ia 
vain^ he represented the matter to Batavia^, 
whea the Resident was re-cailed and anotber 
sent in his place, wbo retunied and took up bis 
jesidence in Pontiana. 

During the residence of the Dutch at Pontiana 
a good deal of illicit trade had been carried on 
\>y the English, with the connivance of the 
Dutch Resident, the ships anchoring only with- 
out the raouth of the rL>'er, but after the facto- 



^ETCII OT BORNEO. 43 

^jr-VTas witlidrawn Pontiaiia became a resort of 
Enirlish tradors, and was alio frequented by the 
Poi'tuguese from Macao^ and the Arabs from 
Muscat and Mocha. It was also visited by 
numerous proas from all parts of Borneo, Bali^ 
Lombok, Sumbawa and Java. This, however, 
only coiitiaued till Pulu Penang began to flour* 
ishj since which time it had greatly decajed. 
The Java trade was nearlv extinguished by the 
•war between the Dutch and English, the pro- 
hibition of the export of dollars from Java, 
and some iinjustifiablc acts of the Sultan ia 
^windling maiiy of the Javanese owners out of 
Ibeir cargoes. 

Sultan Abdiil Rehman died after a short ill- 
Xiess, jFebruary ^6ih 1808, about the age of 70 
years. Whea he perceivei. himself dangerous- 
ly ill, he assembled the cliief men, and told 
thcm he appointed hu eldest son, the Panam- 
bahan of Mampawa, to sücceed him, and dis- 
patched a person to summon the Panambahan 
ixito his presence. Next day Ihe chiefs assem- 
bied, and declared that they desired the Pange- 
rang to be Sultan who was his second son, but 
by an inferior wife, and that they would aban- 
don the place if the Panambahan was to suc* 
cced him^ accnsing hira of cruelt^ aad divers 



44 ?KÊTCH Ot SOÏlNtO. 

acts of murder and polsoning, especlaily ihst 
poisoning tbe Master of a Chinese junk to 
whoiu he was indebted about 800D dollars, and 
the assassination of Captain Sadler, to whonn bö 
\vas indebted 30,000 dollars. Tbey added tbat 
they expected his bad condiict woiild speedily 
place tbern in tbe same situation as Sambas and 
probablj draw on tbem tbe rescntnaent of tbe 
English. 

Tbc Sultan assenled and told tliem since tbey 
desired it, tbe Pangerang would be tbe Sultan. 
The Panambaban arrlved next day and was in- 
formed of tb is resolution. When be canie into 
his fatber*s presence the old man severely re- 
probated his conduct and advised bim to go in 
pilgrimage to Mecca. Tbe Sultan also sent for 
Mr. Burn^ whom be bad sometinae before swin- 
dled out of a valuable cargo, and having re- 
quested bis forgivenesSj desired bim to beware 
of tbe Panambaban. as a man of naturallv bad 
beartj and after his deatb to have no interviews 
witb bim unless in public. On tbe deatb of the 
old Sultan, tbe second brotber, desirous of not 
being involved in bis fatber's dcbts, declined the 
Iionor of being Sultan. The bcad-men, how- 
cver, were at first refractory, and it was some* 
tiuic before tbey could bc brougbt to acknow- 



SKETCH OF BOTINEO. 45 

lo^sce liiir» as S^i^tan, wliich he only accomplish* 
cd by (lint of presents and promiscs, engaginj^ to 
discharge liis father's debts so soon as possible, 
%vhil3 ho gave up many of bis own claims, espe- 
cially those ^vhicb were due by the Arabs. 

The dcccased Sultan was a man of fine pre- 
sence and the most respectable appearancC;, pos- 
scsscd the most insinuating addrcss and irn- 
posing manners. Profnse and ostentations in bis 
habits, he scruplcd at no means, however bare, 
for raising nioney to support this exterlor stafe, 
nnd as he was perfectly versed in every species 
f)f deception, and always supported the appear- 
ance of wealth^ he seldom failed toprocure cre- 
dit from strangers. He concealed bis debts with 
the utmost care, and was in the constant habit 
of contracting one debt to discharge another, 
often selling goods for that purpose at a large 
discount on what he bad bouffht them. Ev this 
nieans bis debts and bis difïiculties went on gra- 
dually accumulating to bis death. The rnost 
considerable part of bis debts were incurred to 
the Bugis traders, and in consequence of this, 
the Sultan was obli2:ed to wink at manv irre2:u- 
larities of those tradcrs, in re2:ard to avoidins: 
the üsual Port dntics. The Chinese repcatcdly 
/nade him offers to farm the duties of tbc port. 



•SK.ETCH OT BORNEO. 

bat to tiiis he would not consent, foreseeing the 
disputes that were certain of ariiing betweea 
the Bisgis and Chine-se. in the midst af these 
difïïeulties, bowever, the Arabs and other reli« 
glous impostors prevaiied on him to advance to 
theni large sums of money, which they never 
thought of refunding ; thus with all bis dissimu- 
Fatioa, becoming the dupe of hvpocricy. IJe 
seems alwajs to have displayed more of the cha- 
racter of the artful trader tban of the Sovereign^ 
though it must be owned^ that he exhibited 
considerable suppleness and dexterlty in ruling 
the motley mass of subjects which he iad col* 
lected at Pontiana. 

in punishment he was unconiTnoniy scvere and 
even barbarous. In bis own faraily the faulta 
of bis domestics, especially his women, were 
punished in the most cruel manner, and by the 
most infamous sort of tortures, sornetinies ponr- 
ing boiling water into the privities of the fe- 
males, or burning them aüve with their para- 
mours on the suspicion of incontinence. 

The present Sultan since the death of hls fa- 
ther, bas conducted himself in such a manner as 
in a grcat measure to effiice the former dislike 
which was cntertaincd of hitn by the people, 
carefully avoiding the n»ost prominent crrors of 



SKETCH OF BORNEe>* ^7 

fris fatlicr's cliaracter. He has endeavoured to 
Uquidate his father's debts, but has found then\ 
so enormous, Ihat a long period must elapse be~ 
fore tbis can possibly be efFected. Carefully 
avoiding all supcrflaous. expense and the con- 
tracting of new debts^ he has attenipted to esta- 
blish beller regulations*. He gradually dismiss- 
ed the Arabs^and religious impostors, who bad 
prejed on his father*s credulity, and altempted 
likewise to compel the Bugis traders to pav the 
usual duties. In this however, he has never 
been able to succeedj and many of thena have 
left Pontiana^ in con3ec[uence of his measiires^ 
neither are the Chinese traders so nuraeroui as 
ihey formerlj were. 

The present Sultan bas been engaged in no 

hoslilities excepting with SannbaSj which is still 

the inveterate eneray of Pontiana. Shorlly af- 

ter the death of theold Sultan of Pontiana, the 

chief of Sambas attacked Mampawa^ and had 

very nearly taken the fort. Immediately on i:e- 

ceiving intelligence of it, the present Sultan pro- 

ceeded to Marapawa with 2000 men, and deft^at* 

cd the Sambas army, taking their guns^ and a 

number of prisoners^ all of whom^ even the wo- 

ïiien, were put to death at Pontiana, and their 

keads exposed publicly. The union of the La* 



49 SKETCÖ OF B0RN£O. 

ïiuns with the chief of Sambas, has hovvever^ 
glvea that chieftain a decided prepoaderance at 

sea. 

The mouth of Lewa or Pontiana river lies a- 
baut S or 4 miles to the N. of the equator» 

The har at the entrance has onlv from 11 to \2 

t/ 

feet at high spring tides^ biit above this the river 
IS vérj deep io an immense distance, and the 
strength of the current seldora exceeds from 3- 
io 3^ miles an hours^ and is generally less The 
anchorage ia the roads is safe and free from 
shoalsj and the weather^ even in October, which 
is the worst month;, is never sa bad as to inter- 
iLipt the regular intercourss betweea the ship 
and the shore. About 7 miles from the mouth 
of the river, at Balu Lajang, there is a fort on 
each side of the river^ with 14 or 15 giins 
mounted^ being IS and 2i pounders ; on the 
North side of the river and on the South side^ 
directlj opposite^ a number of smaller guns. 
The town of Pontiana is about 12 miles from 
the mouth of the river, whcre there is likewise 
a fort, and some armed vessels stationcd. 

In the town and bounds of Pontiana, there 
are settled about 3000 Malays, 1000 Bugis, 100 
ArabSj and about 10^000 Chinese^ besides these 



SKETCH ÓF BORNEO. 49 

xvlio are tlie free inliabitants, there are a consi- 
derable number of Slaves, many of vvhom are 
Javanese, and the rest of all the ether Eastern 
tribes ; there are also a few ruii-away Lascars 
from different vessels. The character of the 
Malays is nearly the sarhe at Pontiana as in 
olhor Eastern to\vn«; ; phlcgmatic, indolent and 
proud, and few of them possess much wealth. 
The Arabs live by trade ; they are generally 
poor when they settlC:, but are respectod on ac- 
count of their religions character by the Ma- 
lays. They are^, however^ neither such cecono- 
mists as the Bugis^ nor so expert as the Chinese 
in trade, and at present few of them possess pro- 
perty to the amount of 20,000 Dollars. The 
Chinese seldoni acquire property above this 
amount at Pontiana^ though they are industri- 
ous and expert in trade. They are fond of good 
living, and addicted to gambling, opium, and 
nierry making. They follow the occupations 
of raerchants, mcchanics and labourers, cultivate 
the ground, distill arrack, make sugar, search 
for gold-dust, and trade to the interior as wcll 
as along the Coast. The Chinese of Montera- 
do and Salakan, two places very near each other^ 
and situated a short way to the North of Mam- 

G 



50 SKETCH OF RORNEO. 

paw?T^ and who are estimatod at 30,000, receive 
from Poiitiana all their supplies of opium, piece 
goods, iron, and China articles The Bngis at 
Fontiana chieflv apply themselves to trade, the 
manufacture of Ba^is cïotb, and the working 
of raw silk into cloths, Many of them are pos- 
sesscd of ver V large property, amoiintiüg toabove 
100^000 Dollars. They are generalij poor wheu 
they come from Bugis-land, but soon acquire 
propertj from umting frujality with dexterity 
in trade. They are extr^m ly ceconomical and 
even penurioiis in their «naniief of livins:, inso* 
mnch that the daily expenc* of a Bii2:is-man's 
familv, however great his property may be, does 
not amount to above 3 or 4 wanj^s, when the 
meanest Chinese icibonrer will continue tospend 
a Rupee; and a wan^ at Pontia.ia is only the 
12th part of a Rupee. 

The Sultan all >ws tbem fo cultivate as much 
ground as they plr^ase, withi)Ut any considera* 
tien for the same, but they seldoni avail tbeni- 
selves of ibis permission, permilting; their do- . 
mestic sla vos only to till as nmch as serves for 
tbeir own subsistence. In na\ githHi, the Bu- 
gis seem to have been station nry pro' ably for 
these tbousand years; th»prf>as in wnrh they 
Bail from Poutiaua to Pulu Peiiang, Java^ Balij 



SKETCH OP BORNEO. 51 

or anv s'milar place, £:enprally cost from 150 to 
300 O.ïliars, and the whole outfit, as far as res* 
pects sail<^, cordaj^e, prnvisions, stores, &r». tbr 
one of these vovages, seldom exceeds the siim of 
40 or 50 Dollars, while the am()nnt of the car-» 
go is iTf'nerally from 10 to 40,000 Dollars. 
The crews receive no wag'es, hut only a sharc of 
the adventure, accordina; to the rej^ulations of 
the Ündang-undaug. Muiy (»f these pro is are 
lost at sea, but few taken hv nirates, as thv^v de- 
fend themselves desperately and never surrender. 

The duties at P>ntiana on sales are 6 per cent 
on all piece goods, one Dollar per pecul on iron, 
ditto on steel, ditto on tin, ditto on salf petre, 
50 Dollars per chest on opium bee's-wax from 
tlie interior, ^4 Dollars per p.cal. The trade of 
Pontiana, hovvever. lias greatly declined. For- 
merly it was annually visited by from 8 to 15 
Chinese junks ; at present^ however^ they never 
exceed the number of 5. Two or three siaali 
junks come annually from Siam, but the value 
of their cargoes is only about 7 ur SOüö Doliara 
each. 

In 1810, the Imports at Pontiana on English 
ships amounted to 210,0JÜ l) >ilars, of which, 
there >vere 95 chests üf upiuaij wiuch avcraii;ed 



öS SKETCH OP BORNEO. 

3000 Dollars per chest. The auantifv of oniurn 
and piece goods imported by the Bug-is^ was 
probably tiiuch greater, but as thev never sub- 
niit to be searched, it cannot be accurately 
known. The Bugis at Bali and some other 
ports, are exempted from duties, and tbey are 
always anxious to avoid them ia every port, 
Forraerly the ports in the straits of Macasar, 
especially those on the Borneo side, as Coti and 
Passir, were chiefly supplied with opium, piece 
goods, iron and steel, from Pontiana and Sana* 
bas ; a snfïall quantity being supplied by Java 
and Riaw, and the returns^ which were very ricb, 
consisting chieöy of gold, wax, and bird's-nests, 
found their way into Pontiana. Those ports, 
howcver, have for some time been supplied from 
Pulu Peiiang. 

The China junks come to Pontiana in Feb^ 
ruarv, with China articles, and sail about the 
end of June, taking in return gold^ bird's nests, 
sea-slüg, fijie carnphor, wax, rattans, black-, 
wood for makiiig furniture, red-wood for dye- 
inij;, and sometimes opium^ tin and oiher articles. 
As they cannot take their full return in rough 
produce, they are obliged to take a large amount 
in gold, though they always prefer producC:, as 
tkcre is a loss upon gold ia China, 



SKETCH OF n O RN EO. 53 

The Sultan of Pontiana has a rcg'ular dis- 
ci'pliiied force, hut all the inhabitanls are oblii»;-. 
cd to act as soldiers whco neccssity icquire.s The 
Malavs and Bugis are always ready and willing 
to turn out for battle, and the Chinese are oblig'* 
ed to assist Ukewise iii case of any emergency» 
though the Malays place little or no confw 
dence in thein. When an alarm has been given, 
the whole force of the place has repeatedly, as 
Mr. Biirn asserts, turned out in half an hour or 
less, and the activity displaycd on such occasions 
forms a striking contrast to the usual listlessness 
of a Malay town. They manufacture their 
own povvdcr and shot at Pontiana. 

The soil of Pontiana' is low and marshv. but 
the cllmate is healthy, and the only distempcr 
from which they suiTcr is the sniall pox^ which 
makes grcat havock ainong thom, as they are 
unacquainted witli cither inoculation or vacci- 
nation. Pontiana does not produc^ so nuich 
rice or fruit as the settlenuMits of the interior, 
but this is only through the defect of cuUiva- 
tion. There is abondance of sea and river fish, 
and the Chinese raise great quantities of stock, 
especially hog?, which are both chcap and ex* 
cellent ia quality. 



54 SE.ETCH OF BORNEO. 

Of the Dayak. 
T'ie Davak are the most numerous class of 
inh^bitants on the ïsiaiid of Boineo^ they oc- 
C'jpv nearlj tbe whole of the interior, and are 
probablj the aborigines of the Island. They 
are divided into a great variety of tribes, which 
are independent of each otherj and varj in di- 
alect^ but have a gencral resemblance in lan- 
guage, custom and manners. In the district» 
South and West they are generaliy denoniinatei 
Dayak;, in the North.ïdaan, and in theEast^Tinm 
or Tedong. PerhapS;, however, on more minute 
investigation, some cbaracteristic distinctions may 
be established between these races, at present we 
are warranted to consider them as the same 
oiiginal stock. The manners of the Dayak are 
characterized by some strange peculiarities and 
UDComraon features of barbarism, but the spirit 
of these traits bas never been eiucidated, nor the 
system of religious or superstitious opinion vvitli 
which they are onnected, examined. Europeans 
Lave had very little opportunity of attending to 
the manners or habits of the Dayak ; and the Ma- 
lay, Bugis or Arab traders, theonly persons who 
are in the habit of frequenting the interior of 
Borneo, can give little account of the counlry, 
bevond mcntioning the distance of oue place 



SKETCH OF BORNEO. 55 

from another in dajs jonrnies, and tlio difTerent 
articlos of trade \vliich are to be procured at 
difTerent places. In the following sketch the 
authority followed with respect to the Southern 
trihes is that of Radermacher^ whose obser^a- 
tions clnefly ^pp^y to the tribe of Binjar, named 
Biaju. With regard to the Eist and^ North, the 
chief authorities are Dalrvniple and Forrest, and 
with regard to the West the authority of Mr. 
Burn, who had not only the opportunity of 
Consulting many Iraders of Pontiana, who were 
in the habit of visiting the interior^ but had 
himself seen several hundreds of the tribes of 
Mainpawa and Sango^ several of whom could 
con verse in the Malay Languagc. 

In appearance^ theDayakare fairer and hand- 
aomer than the Malays^ they are of a more 
slender marke, with higher fore-heads and noses, 
their hair is long, straight and coarse, generally 
cut short round their heads. The feuiales are 
fair and handsome. Many of the Dayak have 
a rough scaly scurf on their skin, like the 
jakong of the Malay peninsula. This they 
consider as an ornament, and are said to acquire 
it by rubbing the juice of some plant ?on their 
skin. The female slaves of this race which are 
found among the Malays have iio appeaiance of 



^6 S&ETCÏI OF BOtlNEa. 

it. The Dayak wear no claaths biit a smaTl 
wrapper round the loins, and maiiy of thera 
tattoo a varietj of figures on their bodies. 
Their houscs are formed of wood, darlc and 
devoid of windows, but often of such size that 
several families live together in the same house, 
sofiietimes amounting to ibe iiumber of a hun- 
drcd personfe. 

Though the Dayak are reckoned indolent bj 
the Malavs, it does not anuear that the chai g^e 
is M^ell cstablished. Wherever they are scttled 
tbey ciïltivate a great quantity of rice; they ia 
many places apply themselves assiduously to 
collect gold-dust, though in th is occiip it"oi 
tliey are greatly inferior to the Chinese^ and are 
generally found very useful in working the 
diamond mines, In some places too^ they carry 
on a considerable trade in rattans alid damar 
Avhich they collect from the forest. In their 
diet the Dayak are subject to few res4rictions, 
eating bög^ and also many kinds of vermin, as 
rats and snakes. The arms of the Dayak are 
the sumpit or blow-pipc^ which bas generally a 
small spear-head fixed at the top, and a large 
heavy iron knife or parang, which they sling in 
a wooden scabbard. They are very dexterous^ 
iu tUrowing snaall poisoned arrows with the 



S-KETCH OF BOïlNEO; 57 

sumpit, and are acquaintcd with the most dead- 
iy poisoiis, especialiy one wliich is producei 
ff om tlie ju ice oi* a tree fouud in Boriieo and 
also in Java, In the coiistruction of their 
boats and sonie of their uteiisils, the Dayak 
display coasiderabie ingenuity. Few of thena 
are acquiinted with the use of fire-arra», except* 
iiig in the vicinity of Eauj:ir, and the Malays 
are anxious to keep them in this ignorance. 

In manners they are described as a mihl and 
simple people/ and though their superstitioüs 
opinions occision great enormi ies among them, 
jet it fs admitted by the Moslems, that whea 
any of them happen to be converted to thaf re* 
ligion, they become exemplary for the propriety 
of their conduct. 

In Govemmetit they are regulated in their 
own villagcs^ like the jakong, by the advice of 
the elders. In some places, however, they have 
their own chiefs, who possess a degree ofautho* 
lity analogous to that of the Malay Rajahs. 

In regard to letters, it does not appear tha.t 
tbey ever had any knowledge of them, and in con- 
Sequence of thia, it is impossible to tracé their 
origia. Their own traditious oq this head are 



£8 SKETCH OF BÓRNEÖ, 

represented as exc^ssively wild and incohereüi^ 
but it does not appe^ir th?it they have ever been 
collect^^d. The Sulus have a notioii, that the 
Idaan of the North are descen<!ed from the Chi- 
nese, an opinion which seetiis mereïj to hiive 
originated from the fairness of th^-ir complex-^ 
ion. Dalrjmplè has mentioncd one of the le- 
ge ds eoririected with thi& opiuionf Or?eiit. Re- 
pertory Vol. J. Pa2:e 559) which runs thiis. 
^^ The Emperor, of Chioa sent a j^reat fleet for 
the stone of a «nakp^ .whici) Ivad its .resideace at 
Keenev Ba Üoo, the nurnber of, peöpfe landed 
Was so grr^at as to forro a coutiqiied cjiaia from 

the sea^ and .when th" su;tk.es st me was stolen, 

«•« • " ''•.''■■■» 

it was ha 'ded from ow^ {u ano her till ^t rcach* 

éd the Boat which imm:"di3jtely put off from the 

shore, and carried the pri^e to the Jiioks^ whicn 

'immediatö'v sailine^, left aH tli'ósé "who' were 

ash '^ bHfnd, thous^h th'efir 'Ökpatch was not 

enonjrh ^o prevent thé Wa^<o*s[)ur'siiit,who carrie 

\ir> Wï(h the iuiiks and-ï'e:;raiued hU frcasure.** 

This is not a fradition vvhich cari throw any 

light Oh the or «rin of the Diyak* !t rcsembhs 

'a Malay fable about the snakes or Nagaa, which 

"fiiinre 'nearly as ni'ich in the romances of tha 

Malays as amoi^s- those ofi tiWv>Hijuius, .amoog 

whom Naga obviously ^jgniGes a moiuitaincer as 

weü as a siiake. 



SKETCH OF nORNEO. 59 

' In reliicion, the Dayak acfcnowledge ihe su«^ 
premacy of the m>iker of the worLI, whom ihey 
term Devata or D.^watta, sliïÓ. to whom they ad- 
dress prayers as its pres(»rver. They liolii parti* 
Ciilar kinds of biids inhiiirh veneratioiK, 'and draw 
om MIS from the sounds ^vhich they uftcr aud 
froiii their fiights. One o? the prkicipal of these 
i* alarge species of white-heade<i kit^'.which prejs 
(on fish, snakes and vermin. By sonie, they are 
said to huid the sun and raoon ia particular 
V€neration, and to worship tbem, but when Mr, 
Burn interrogated them on this point., they 
ste-ïdily denied it. ïn all their wars, journies, 
and in short all matters of i-nportance, they pay 
the utmost attention to the o mens of birds, 
and sometimes too they endeavour to penetrate 
the secrets of futi»rity hy Consulting the entrails 
of birds. Their ceremonies ofareligious kind 
are few, but raany of thom are dreadfully bar^ 
barous. 

At thebirth of a child, during the parturitioa 
ih^y summon a conjurer, who is ter»ne(^ Balian, 
instead of a niidwife, aud v\ho, instead of lending 
any assistance to the woman, beats a gindang, 
aud sings to it tiU the chiid is born. 

With regard to their funercal ceremonies, the 
C0fpse is placed m a coiSu^ and ^eiuaius io the 



60 SKETCH OF EORNEO. 

house till the son, the father, or the nearèst of 
blood can procure or purGbase a slave, who is 
belieaded at the time that the corpse is burnt, 
ïn order that he may become the slave of the 
deceased io the next world. The ashes of the 
deceased are theo placed in an earthen urn, 
on which various figures are exhibited, and 
the head of the slave is dried and prepared ia 
a pecüliar tnanner with camphor and drugs 
and deposited near it. It is said that this prac- 
tice often induces them to purchase a slave 
guiltj of some capita! crime, at five fold hii 
value, in order that they may be able to put^ 
him to death on such occasions. 

With respect to marriage, the most brtjfal 
part of their customs is that nobodj can be per- 
Siitted to marrj till he can present a hu ma» 
head of some other tribe to his proposed bride, 
in which case she is not permitted to refase hiitj, 
it is not, however, necessary that this should be 
obtained entirely by his own personal prowess, 
When a person is determiaed togo a head-hunt- 
ing, as it is very often a very dangerous service, 
he consults v^^ith his friends and acquaintances, 
who frequently accompany him or send their 
slavesalong with him. The head-hunter thea 
procee ds with lus part^ in tke most cautious man- 



SRETCH OF BORNEO. 61 

ner to the vicinity of the villa^os of another tribe, 
and lies in ambush till they surprize snme 
liecdless unsuspectihg ^vretch, vvho is inataritly 
dccapitated. Sometimes too they surprize a 
solitarj, fislierman in a river or on thesbore, wha 
instantly undergoes the same fate. When the 
hiinter returns, the whole village is fiücd with 
joy, and old and young, men and womcn hurry out 
to meet him, and conduct him with the sound of 
brazen cymbals, dancing in long lines, to the 
house of the female he admires, \7hose family 
likevvise comes out to meet him with dances, and 
provide him a seat, and givebim meat and drink. 
lïe still holds tb<'. blood j head in liis hand, and 
puts part of the food into its mouth, after whicli 
the fenjales of the family come, and receive the 
bead from him, which they bang up to the ceil- 
ingover the door. The betrotbing of the bvide 
then takes place, when the busband mtjst present 
lier with one or more slaves, a coiiple of cloths, 
ftnd an eartben urn or pitclicr adorned with 
figures On the day of tbe marriage cere- 
mony, the bride and tbe bridegroom are botb 
dressed very fine in tiieir manncr, and a feast 
is held in eacli of their bouscs. The bride- 
groom comes in state to tbe house of the bride, 
^bere one of tbc friciids leceives him at tbe door. 



63^ SKETCH CF BORNEQ. 

and streaks bim witli the blood of a cock; and' 
also streaks the bride with the blood of a hen, 
When the blood spreads too wide^ it isreckoioed 
a bad omen. The parties then join their bloody 
hands, and the ceremony coneludes with another 
fèast. 

Ifaman's wife die^ he is not permitted to 
ïïiake proposals of marriage to another, till he 
baa provided another head of a different tribe^. 
as if to revenge the death of his deceased Wife. 
The heads procured io this manner they preserve 
yvhh great care, and sonaetimcs consult in divi* 
nation. The reiigious opiaions connected with. 
this practice are hy no means correctly iinder- 
stood. Some assert that they b lieve that every 
person whora a man kills in this world, becomes 
bis slave in the next. The Idaan, it is said, 

thuik, that the entrance into Paradise is over a 

■ «. 

ionff: tree which serves for a bridge, over which 
it is impossible to pass without the assistince of 
a slave slain in this world. Some of. the Idaau 
of the North reckon Paradise to be $ituated at 
the top of Kinibelu, and guarded by afiery dog^ 
that seiïes on all virguxs as they attempt to pass. 

The Tdaans are reiigious observers of oath3. 
They have a reiigious foriu likewise, by whicU. 



SKETCTt OV BORNEO. 63 

tTiey adopt strani^ers iuto their tribes. Th(?y 
proiioinice a certain form of words, ai)d theii 
eii<. Il raitan, the porson to be adoptcd does the 
same, after which, he and all his relations are 
COn&i.Jered as adoptod. Tliey generally mas- 
sacre all prisoners óf'war, the chief s^riking 
the first stroké. When t!i€"y take a hostile chief 
prisoner, thev preserve his whole body witli 
camphor, with hb arms extended, and place 
cowries in the-sockets of his eyei, 

/'/The^ practica of stealing heads causes freq uent 
^ars*^amt>ng the different tribes of the Idaan, 
Maniy persons liéver can obtain a head, in which 
case they are gener^lly despised by the Warri- 
ors and the Women. To such a height it is; 
carriedj however, that a person who had cbtainecl 
élevfeni, heads, ha» been seen by Mr, Bura^jand 
he pointed out his son^ a young iadj! who had 
procüred three. 

The Diyak do not practise polyganny. Whcri 
a married woman commits adultery, the hnsband 
wipes oflPhis disirrace bv murdering one, two, or 
three of his slaveg, and sometimes chastises the 
unfuithrul wife with bh)ws When a man, of 
• his ovvn accord, wishes to separate from his 
Avife, he resigns her cloaths and ornaments, and 
pays her besides a forfcit of 20, 25^ or 30 Spa- 



63f sj-KETcn or èohneo; 

lïish Dollars, after whieh he may marry anotlief/ 
The Dayak have some \estiges of ordeal 
amongst them. Whea charges of theft oQCur, 
ihe.y take a pot and put into it some ashes of a pat» 
ticular kind aud taking *wocopperpice,one in the 
name of the accuser and the other of the accused> 
and placing them on a stick athwart the pot, af» 
ter ccrtain incautations they reverse them iöto 
the pot and decide the process ia favor of the 
party whose pice is most whitenedc 

Before the Dayak engage in any journfey, 
War, head-hunting, or indeed any matter of im- 
pc>rtance, theyeodeavortoprocureomensfroEnthe 
kites, and invite them by screamiog soogs, and 
scattering rice before them. If these birds take 
thcir flight in the direction they wish to go, it is 
reo-arded as a favorable omen, if they take 
another difection they reckon it is unfavorable, 
and delay the business till the omens appear raorc 
favorable, 

JSND OF THE yilth VOLUME, 



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